IJPAR | International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

ISSN: 2320_2831

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  1. Chromatographical fractionation guided by antioxidant activity of Morinda citrifoliaDownload Article

    Rasha Saad, Muhammad Aqil, Eddy Yusuf, and Fadli Asmani.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (241-248)
    • No of Download = 435

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    Morinda citrifolia Linn. belongs to family of Rubiaceae. Characteristically, the plant is ascribable by its elongated trunk with 8-10 inches long bright green leaves. The leaves are opposite, pinnately veined and glossy. Initially, the subject plant specimen was further authenticated and identified taxonomically by Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) and have been granted with the specimen number of PID140314-10 for future research. The dried leaves were then extracted with methanol by maceration-ultrasonication extraction method. Methanolic crude extracts were fractionated on open column chromatography with ethyl acetate-hexane (50:50) as eluate. Ten fractions were collected and analyzed for antioxidative activity assay using in-vitro model of 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The results showed that fraction number three exhibited considerably high antioxidative activity comparing with the standard dose of marketed tocopherol. The IC30value of fraction three was 100mg/ml. This fraction together with fraction two, four, eight and nine were subjected to quantitative and qualitative analysis of phytochemical screening. Results for fraction three shows that five of seven phytochemical screened for were present. They are: alkaloid, flavonoid, glycoside, tannin and anthraquinone. Quercetin, tannic acid and emodin reagent were used as standard for calibration of total flavonoids, tannins and anthraquinone content respectively. The quantification of total flavonoid, tannin and anthraquinone content showed 2.74mg/g quercetin, 47.62µg/g tannic acid and 1.142mg/g emodin equivalent respectively, the study indicates that the leaves of Morinda citrifolia Linn. serves as a potent source of natural antioxidant activity and exhibit the highest flavonoid, tannin and anthraquinone content.

  2. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel imidazole derivativesDownload Article

    S.Shobha Rani, Bethi Srinivas, Raju Bathula, J.Venkateshwar Rao, K.Rama Devi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (249-261)
    • No of Download = 531

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    Literature survey reveals that in recent years several imidazole derivatives have been synthesized and reported to possess varied biological and pharmacological properties. They are found to be useful as antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, anthelmintic, analgesic, antineoplastic, antidiabetic, antihistaminic and anti-inflammatory agents. In view of the biological importance of both imidazole moiety and isatin derivatives, we synthesized new novel derivatives containing imidazole acid hydrazide at the third position of the isatin ring.

  3. Comparative studies of Zingiber officinale leaves and rhizomes on the antibacterial effectDownload Article

    Rasha Saad, Lee Wai, Norfazrin Hanif, Eddy Yusuf, and Fadli Asmani
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (262-268)
    • No of Download = 536

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    Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants. Different parts of a plant such as leaf, stem, root, flower or seed, contain different phytochemicals or various concentration of phytochemicals. These chemical compounds may have biological significance like antioxidants or antibacterial. This study was conducted to investigate the comparative effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes and ginger leaves on bacteria. The plants were extracted by percolation technique using soxhlet extractor. All extracts were tested against four bacterial strains which included gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bascillus spp.) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) bacteria using disc diffusion method. In this research gentamicin 10 μg were used as the antibacterial standard. The antimicrobial activity of the active extract was evaluated quantitatively using three different concentrations. The concentration of the leaves extract and rhizome extract had significant effect on the zone of inhibition for all the bacteria. The result from this study showed ginger rhizome has more antimicrobial activity than ginger leaves and it can be used alongside conventional antibiotic to fight infections.

  4. Spectral analysis of whole plant ethanol extract of Blepharisrepens (vahl) roth and its fractionDownload Article

    M.Rajan, N.Senthilkumar, G.Jeyabalan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (269-276)
    • No of Download = 800

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    The whole plant of Blepharisrepens (vahl) Roth, have a great medicinal value. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical profile of ethanolic extract of Blepharisrepens (vahl) Rothand its fractions (by various spectral analysis) which will be useful for its proper identification when therapeutically used. Spectral analysis was done by different analytical methods such as UV, IR, GC-MS and HPTLC studies in ethanol extract (EE) of Blepharisrepens (vahl) Rothand its fractions. In HPTLC analysis, ethanolic extract and its fractions showed the presence of different types of compound with different RF values ranging from 0.01 to 1.05. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of terpenoids (mono), fatty acids such as hexadecanoic acid (CAS) palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid(CAS) palmitic acid, benzene dicarboxylic acid, cyclo heptasiloxane, Octadecene -1-ol, octadecenalin ethanol extract and its fractions ofBlepharisrepens (vahl) Roth.

  5. Effect of different sampling locations on the antibacterial property of Centella asiatica leavesDownload Article

    Rasha Saad, Mohd Nazmi, Norfazrin Hanif, Fadli Asmani, Eddy Yusuf.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (277-283)
    • No of Download = 668

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    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of antibacterial activity of Centella asiatica herb collected from different sampling location. The effect can be determined by analysing the bacterial response towards plant extracts. The tested bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Zone of inhibition produced by different extracts against the selected strains was measured and compared with standard antibiotic penicillin (10μg) and gentamicin (10μg). The result demonstrated that the Centella asiatica from urban area have higher antimicrobial activities (average of 1.629 cm zone of inhibition) than sub-urban (average of 1.305 cm zone of inhibition). All the extracts showed better results against the Escherichia coli strains comparing with penicillin (10μg) but not for gentamicin (10μg) test on the other bacteria strains. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the different extracts of Centella asiatica revealed a significant scope to develop a novel broad spectrum of antibacterial herbal formulations.

  6. Fabrication and evaluation of a stable flurbiprofen hydrogelDownload Article

    Jawad A, Amy T, Jiyauddin K., S. Budiasih, M. Kaleemullah, Samer A. D., Eddy Y., and Fadli A.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (284-290)
    • No of Download = 577

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    The purpose of the study was to prepare a stable 6% Flurbiprofen hydrogel. Oral Flurbiprofen generates several side effects; hence hydrogel was prepared to reduce these side effects in the present study. Gastrointestinal side effects such as bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines are commonly seen when the drug is administered orally. In this research, a hydrogel was formulated whereby flurbiprofen was the active ingredient, using a thickening agent (Carbopol) and distilled water (solvent). The finished formulation gives a white color hydrogel. Stability studies were performed at different accelerated conditions, i.e. 2-40oC (Cool room), 250C (Room temperature) and 400C (Oven) for 28 days to predict the stability of formulations. Different parameters, namely pH, liquefaction, color, phase separation and effect of centrifugation (Simulating gravity) were determined during stability studies. There were no changes in liquefaction, color, phase separation and centrifugation in the formulation stored at 2-40oC (Cool room), 250oC (Room temperature) and 400oC (Oven) up to 28 days. Based on one-way ANOVA test, the changes in pH values of the sample was not significant at different levels of time and temperature (p > 0.05). The mean pH value of the sample at different storage conditions was not far from the initial value of the studies, which is pH 5.5. The drug content of Flurbiprofen hydrogel was found to be 76.3% of Flurbiprofen. The Hydrogel released 79.46% of the drug content by 8 hours. Overall, this indicates that the formulation was stable and can be used for the topical dosage form.

  7. Comparative study on the effect of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers on the dissolution rate of a poorly water soluble drugDownload Article

    Jiyauddin K., Sung Y. K. Samer A.D., M. Kaleemullah, Rasha S., S. Budiasih, Jawad A., Rasny M. R., Gamal O. E., Junainah A. H., Eddy Y., Fadli A. and Chan W. J.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (291-300)
    • No of Download = 384

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    Matrix tablets of controlled release systems were designed by incorporating HPMC (K100M) and Kollidon® SR polymers in order to sustain the release of ketoprofen. All the formulations were prepared by direct compression method. Various pharmaco technical evaluation tests such as uniformity of weight, diameter and thickness, hardness and friability of the tablets were determined for each formulation and the marketed reference product. The effects of different types and concentrations of polymers were also investigated. The dissolution profiles of the formulated tablets were compared to that of the marketed reference Apo-Keto SR® tablets. The in vitro release studies revealed that the release was sustained up to 12 hours in this experiment. The best formulation was selected by obtaining a similarity factor (f2) value of more than 50%, approaching 100%. The release kinetics from each formulation such as first order equation, zero order equation, Higuchi equation, equation and Korsmeyer-Peppas was also studied. The statistical results indicated that there was significant difference between each formulation and they were found to be compatible. At the same polymer content, the most sustained drug released was found to be prepared using HPMC (K100M) rather than Kollidon® SR. It was found that by increasing the polymer content, the rate of drug release decreased. The best formulation was F2 containing 20% HPMC (K100M) polymer as it showed comparable dissolution profile to the reference product with f2 value of 71.94%. The drug release determined using kinetics equations revealed that the drug release follows the diffusion mechanism.

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