IJPAR | International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

ISSN: 2320_2831

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  1. Simultaneous UV-spectrophotometric estimation of ibuprofen and moxifloxacin in pH 6.8 phosphate bufferDownload Article

    Kiran Yada, Prakash Katakam, Soumya Suddala.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (88-93)
    • No of Download = 647

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    Rapid development of research in the field of periodontal drug delivery poses challenges in developing new analytical methods to estimate combination of drugs used to treat infections. Preferably, the anti-inflammatory agent is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), such as ibuprofen should be employed in subgingival infections along other anti-microbial agents such as moxifloxacin. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a precise and rapid simultaneous estimation of ibuprofen and moxifloxacin using a UV spectroscopic method in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. Ibuprofen and moxifloxacin showed absorbance maxima at 224.5 nm and 287 nm in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer respectively. The validation parameters proved that the developed method could be employed successfully for simultaneous routine determination of these drugs in formulations such as in situ gels intended for periodontal infections.

  2. Study of Diseases like Malaria, Chikungunya and Dengue caused by Mosquitoes in human kindDownload Article

    Dr.R.Srinivasan, M.Dhanunjaya Raju, S.Durga Prasad, M.Eswara Rao, G.Harish, R.Jogayya, P.Kameswara Rao
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (94-99)
    • No of Download = 1234

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    Generally mosquitoes are causing various diseases to humans, in the present study we have performed case study on patients suffering from Malaria, Chikungunya and Dengue. Malaria is caused by Plsamodium species and is transmitted via the bites of Mosquitoes. The common symptoms include fever, chills, headache, and vomiting. Diagnosis can be done by rapid diagnosis tests and microscopy. Dengue is an acute infectious disease caused by a flavivirus transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. Symptoms include Sudden, high fever, Severe headaches, Pain behind the eyes, Severe joint and muscle pain, Nausea, Vomiting and Skin rash. Diagnosis can be done by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for detecting viral genomic sequence from Serum or Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF) samples collected from the patient, which is more expensive and complicated. Chikungunya a febrile disease is caused by a toga virus of the genus Alpha virus. Symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue, and rash. Diagnosis can be done by Common laboratory tests for chikungunya include for instance RT-PCR and serological tests. We monitor the patients suffering from these studies regarding usage of drugs.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of lornoxicam of sustained release matrix tabletsDownload Article

    Sk Shakir Ahmad, Dr.R.Srinivasan, B. Durgamma, S.Gowri, Y. Jaya sravani, S.Jyothi, G.Lakshmi , M.Mounika
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (100-106)
    • No of Download = 460

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    The major objective of the present research work is to prepare and evaluate sustained release matrix tablets of lornoxicam using hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K15M). It is practically insoluble in water and aqueous fluids. Sustained release formulation is needed for lornoxicam because of its short biological half-life of 3.0-5.0 h. To study and evaluate the effect of two solubilizers namely polyvinyl pyrollidine PVP K30 and poly ethylene glycol (PEG 400) on the aqueous solubility of lornoxicam. Lornoxicam sustained release matrix tablets were formulated by employing hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMCk15M) as matrix former, poly ethylene glycol (PEG400) as solubilizer, lactose or dicalcium phosphate as diluent for lornoxicam by wet granulation process. All the tablets prepared were evaluated for hardness, disintegration time and dissolution rate. Lornoxicam SR tablet equivalent 220 mg was used in each case. The solubility of lornoxicam was found to be 4.36, 40.76, and 38.36 mg/100ml respectively in water and water containing 2% PEG 400 and 2% PVP. Formulations F1, F2, F3, and F4 contain 50% HPMC K15M as release retardant. Formulations F1 and F2 contain lactose and DCP respectively as diluents, Formulations F3 and F4 contain PEG 400 at 5% strength as solubility enhancer, Tablets containing lactose as diluent gave relatively rapid release when compared to those containing DCP. All Formulations F1-F4 gave very slow release, about 20-35% in 24 hrs diluent. Formulations F5 and F6 were prepared employing HPMC K15M. Drug release from these formulations was very rapid and complete within 6 h in the case of F5 and within 10 h in the case of F6. Formulations F7 and F8 were prepared using 25% and 40% HPMC K15M, Lornoxicam release from the commercial SR tablets was slow and extended over a period of 18-20 h. Lornoxicam release from formulation F7 was slow and spread over 16 h. Drug release from formulation F7 was nearly similar to that from commercial formulation. Hence formulation F7 is considered as the best SR formulation of Lornoxicam. The FTIR spectra of lornoxicam and its formulated tablets in HPMC K15M, lactose and DCP were obtained with FTIR Spectrophotometer.

  4. Polysaccharide based colon-specific nano particulate drug delivery systemDownload Article

    Balaji yadav M, Dr Abhayasthana, Gyati Shilakari
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (107-115)
    • No of Download = 437

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    Natural polysaccharides are now extensively used for the development of solid dosage forms for delivery of drug to the colon. The rationale for the development of a polysaccharide based Nano particulate delivery system for colon. Various approaches used for targeting the drugs to the colon include, formation of a prodrug, multi-coating time-dependent delivery systems, coating with pH-sensitive polymers, pressure dependent systems, and the use of biodegradable polymers. In particular, polysaccharides seem to be the most promising materials in the preparation of nanometeric carriers. In this review, four mechanisms are introduced to prepare polysaccharides-based nanoparticles, that is, covalent crosslinking, ionic crosslinking, polyelectrolyte complex, and the self-assembly of hydrophobically modified polysaccharides. The approaches utilizing polysaccharides for colon-specific delivery are fermentable coating of the drug core, embedding of the drug in biodegradable matrix, formulation of drug-saccharide conjugate (prodrugs). A large number of polysaccharides have already been studied for their potential as colon-specific drug carrier systems, such as chitosan, pectin, chondroitin sulphate, cyclodextrin, dextran, guar gum, inulin, amylose and locust bean gum. Recent efforts and approaches exploiting these polysaccharides in colon-specific drug delivery system.

  5. Formulation and evaluation of carvedilol fast dissolving sublingual filmsDownload Article

    V.Kranthi kumar, Syed Umar Farooq, M Vamshi Krishna, R srividya, Dr D Sudheer kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (116-128)
    • No of Download = 626

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    Carvedilol, a non selective beta blocker is an antihypertensive drug which has oral bioavailability of 25-35% with conventional dosage forms due to first pass metabolism. The present study investigated the possibility of developing carvdilol fast dissolving sublingual films allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity, thus bypassing first pass metabolism to provide rapid onset of action of the drug. The fast dissolving films were prepared by solvent casting method. Low viscosity grades of HPMC E3 and HPMC E5 were used as film forming polymers. In this study Tween 80 was used as solubilising agent as well as plasticizer. All the film formulations (F1-F9) were evaluated for their thickness, weight variation, tensile strength, percentage elongation, folding endurance, in-vitro disintegration, drug content, in-vitro drug release and ex-vivo permeation studies. Disintegration time showed by the formulations was found to be in range of 25-50 sec. Formulation F7 was chosen as the best formulation which showed 96.65% in-vitro drug release within 5 min and 62.36% ex-vivo drug permeation within 60 min. The film showed an excellent stability at least for 45 days when stored at 400 C and 75% relative humidity.

  6. A review on medicinal plants with hypolipidemic activityDownload Article

    G.Alagumanivasagam, P.Veeramani
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (129-134)
    • No of Download = 2540

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    In the last few years there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and these drugs are gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. There are a growing number of studies reporting hypolipidemics activity with traditional medicines. The present review constituents on plant with hypolipidemic activity from this plants and special emphasis on those found in different regions all over the world, including mainly India. The information is recorded in plant scientific name, family, part used, route of administration, dose given, Method used (Pharmacological method) and references. The advantages of herbal medicines reported are effectiveness, safety, affordability, and acceptability. The present review focus on the botanical sources, Phytochemistry, Therapeutic uses, potential Pharmacological effect of some of the herbs, and Siddha formulations, being used in Siddha system of medicine for urolithiasis.

  7. Development and charecterization of an itraconazole solid -lipid dispersion formulation using spray drying technique for improved oral bioavailabilityDownload Article

    Ganesh. M, Chandra shekar. B , Madhusudan rao. Y
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (135-143)
    • No of Download = 324

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    Objective- The purpose of this research to prove the efficacy of the lipid excipients in improving the aqueous dissolution and in vivo permeation of poorly soluble drugs by designing the solid dispersions. Methods- Itraconazole classified as a BCS class II compound .Itraconazole is one of the triazole antifungal agents that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes resulting in impairment of ergosterol synthesis., ITZ has a strongly pH dependent solubility (pKa 3.7) with reported solubilities in acidic and neutral media of approximately 4 μg/mL and 1 ng/mL respectively. While limited by poor aqueous solubility, the highly lipophilic nature of the compound (Clog P) 6.26 allows for high permeability of intestinal membranes. Due to its poor solubility it is a challenging task to prepare a formulation for oral route of administration. Spray drying approach is applied to prepare the drug loaded solid dispersions into free flowing solid particles. Results- Itraconazole incorporated solid-lipid particles it is assumed to have a higher aqueous dissolution of drug due to morphological conversion of the drug and reduced particle size. From the results it has been identified that the one composition (ISDL3) has shown optimum results. The solubility has enhanced by 4 -5 times, dissolution by 3 – 4 times, the ISDL3 (the ITR : Lipid mixture ratio was maintained at 1 : 1 ratio), with high drug content of 94% has been found as best formulation, giving lipid-solid dispersion an edge over plain drug and solid dispersions.

  8. Formulation and development of mucoadhesive tablets of captoprilDownload Article

    Ganesh Kumar Gudas, D.V.R.N. Bhikshapathi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (144-154)
    • No of Download = 1194

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    The development of mucoadhesive tablets of captopril which were designed to prolong the gastric residence time after oral administration. Matrix tablets of captopril were formulated using different mucoadhesive polymers such as carbopol 940 p, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K45M, SCMC, RH (Relative Humidity) in various ratios for treatment of hypertension. Currently hypertension has become a common problem in all over the world, due to effectiveness and intensive use of captopril as a drug of choice in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, development of oral controlled release dosage form of captopril has been an interested topic of research for a long period of time. The tablets were evaluated for various parameters such as compatibility studies, drug content, weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, swelling studies, in vitro drug release studies, in vitro mucoadhesion strength ,ex vivo residence time test and release rate kinetics. The in vitro release kinetics studies reveal that all formulations fits well with zero order, followed by korsmeyer-peppas, higuchi and the mechanism of drug release is erosion. After analysis of different evaluation parameters and drug release kinetics, formulation code f12 was selected as a promising formulation for delivery of captopril as a mucoadhesive gastroretentive tablet with best mucoadhesive strength and 96.68% drug release at 12th hour. Stability studies of the selected formulation was carried out to determine the effect of formulation additives on the stability of the drug and also to determine the physical stability of the formulation. The stability studies were carried out at 40°c/75% rh for 90days. There was no significant change in the physical property and weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, in vitro drug release studies, in vitro mucoadhesion strength drug content during the study period.

  9. Formulation and Evaluation of Biodegradable Sustained Release Aceprophyline Cow Urine Nanoparticle for the Treatment of AsthmaDownload Article

    P.Sumathy, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (155-167)
    • No of Download = 956

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    The objective of present investigation was to evaluate the entrapment efficiency of the anti-asthma drug Aceprophyline, using natural polymer of different ratio (1:1 to 1:3) and study the effect of this entrapment on the drug release properties. The present study relates to such precious and holy animal derived material cow urine used as a medium and improves the anti-asthmatic activities. The morphology of the nano particles was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope, which showed a round and spherical shape with smooth surface. The result of ratio (1:3) showed a good encapsulation efficiency of 98.29%.Aceprophyline nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR, DSC and quantitated by UV prepared nanoparticles appeared spherical with round drug core in transmission electron microscopy studies. The release date of Aceprophyline from sodium alginate cow urine nanoparticles was much lower than that HPMC K100 cow urine nanoparticle. Evaluation of release data reveals that release of Aceprophyline with cow urine nanoparticles followed the zero orders, whereas sodium alginate cow urine nanoparticles shows as sustained dispersive drug release was observed invitro one releasing the drug pay load over a period of 16hr. embedding Aceprophyline nanoparticles in alginate provided sustain release. They also offered better pharmacokinetic properties to the drug than afforded by the free drug itself. The cow urine nanoparticle method developed a good choice for one development of sustained anti-asthmatic drug therapy. Improve the patient compliance, reduce the side effects.

  10. Nano catalysts in effective biomass processingDownload Article

    Srijita Duttaz
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (168-173)
    • No of Download = 275

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    The population of the world is increasing day by day very rapidly and the development in industrial field raise the demand of energy. Due to limited resource of non-renewal energy resource, hike in crude oil prices and ever increasing pollution, human civilization has been forced to look for renewal energy recourses and hence biomass has got a great attention in this regard. Currently biomass is supplying about 10-15% energy of the world and it is expected to contribute half of the energy of the whole world by the year 2050. Biomass is generally processed by gasification and direct liquefaction to produce gases and liquids used as energy, but it also has to face the problems caused by heterogeneous catalyst, in the form of increase in material cost, decrease of catalyst performance over the time, the relative difficulty in reclaiming and recycling, sulfur poisoning and deactivation. Nano technology has shown a promising hope in this regard. Gasification provides a route in converting the highly distributed and low value lignocellulosic biomass to hydrogen rich gas, namely the synthetic gas, as well as hydrogen gas. Moreover, the resulting gas achieves a Fischer-Tropsch reactor favourable H2: CO ratio of about 9:1. The application of nanocatalysts improves yield at relatively milder operating conditions compared to bulk catalyst. Moreover nano catalysts are economically feasible on large scale with respect to heterogeneous catalyst. Also, the nano catalysts NiO, CeO2, ZnO, and SnO2 are used to reduce tar formation during gasification. The nano catalyst treatment increases gas yield and, in one embodiment, cracks and gasifies lignin, which is generally inert in conventional gasification. The nanoalloy catalysts like CeZr, xO2 and Ni3Cu (SiO2)6 achieve the increased conversion efficiency and cracking of any biomass at relatively lower gasification temperature. As such combination of catalyst and methods invented till now, provides a means to increase gas yields while lowering the lignin content in the resulting product relative to conventional gasification.

  11. Method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of tolperisone hydrochloride and diclofenac sodium by RP-HPLCDownload Article

    Madasu Sravan Kumar, P.Sunitha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (174-182)
    • No of Download = 1033

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    A validated RP-HPLC method has been developed for the determination of Tolperisone hydrochloride and Diclofenac Sodium in tablet dosage form. This method is developed by using C18 column (Inertsil ODS, 250 mm length, 4.6 mm internal diameter and 5 µm particle size) and a mixture Phosphate Buffer pH 3.0, Acetonitrile and Methanol (60:20:20) as a mobile phase. The drug was quantified by a UV detector at 242 nm. The method is linear for Tolperisone hydrochloride and Diclofenac Sodium in range of 90 to 210 µg/ ml and 30 to 70µg/ml, respectively. The percentage mean recovery of the method for Tolperisone hydrochloride and Diclofenac Sodium was found to be 99.75% and 99.38%, respectively. The proposed method was found to be linear, precise and accurate for the quantitative estimation of Tolperisone hydrochloride and Diclofenac Sodium in tablets and can be used for commercial purposes.

  12. Method development and validation for simultaneous estimation of domperidone maleate and cinnarizine by RP-HPLCDownload Article

    Kandula Sushma, P.Sunitha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (183-192)
    • No of Download = 360

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    A validated RP-HPLC method has been developed for the determination of Domperidone maleate and Cinnarizine in tablet dosage form. This method is developed by using a Kromosil C18 column (250 cm length, 4.6 mm internal diameter and 5 µm particle size) and a mixture phosphate buffer pH 3.0, Acetonitrile and Methanol (40:40:20) as a mobile phase. The drug was quantified by a UV detector at 268nm. The method is linear for Domperidone maleate and Cinnarizine in range of 18 to 42 µg/ ml and 24 to 56 µg/ ml respectively. The Mean recovery of Domperidone maleate and Cinnarizine was found to be in the 99.73% to 99.23%. The Proposed method was found to be Linear, precise and accurate for the quantitative estimation of Domperidone maleate and Cinnarizine in tablets and can be used for commercial purposes.

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