IJPAR | International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

ISSN: 2320_2831

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  1. Determination of some toxic heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants commonly used in Gondar area district, Northwestern EthiopiaDownload Article

    Tadele Atinafu, Taddese Mekonnen, Jeevanandham Somasundaram
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (399-405)
    • No of Download = 638

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    In Ethiopia, up to 80% of the population uses traditional medicines. The common sources of these medicines are plants. However, medicinal plants are contaminated with environmental pollutants especially heavy metals, which pose a great health risks upon long term exposures. Hence, this work was done to determine the level of three most common and toxic metals (Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead) in ten medicinal plants commonly used in Gondar area district. The concentrations of selected heavy metals were determined in medicinal plant samples using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (for Cd and Pb) and Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (for As) after they were digested following the already developed method. The accuracy of the analytical procedures was evaluated by performing spike recovery tests. The percentage recoveries were from 85 - 105%.The result showed that the concentrations of the metals detected in the samples range from 0.03 – 2.06, 0.001 – 6.75, and 0.002 – 35.97 mg of metal per kg of sample for As, Cd, and Pb, respectively. Over all, out of each ten samples analyzed two for Arsenic (20%), seven for cadmium (70%) and three for Lead (30%) were found to contain concentrations above maximum WHO permissible limit (1, 0.3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively) which showed possible risk of toxic effects of the studied metals in the medicinal plants used.

  2. Development of validated RP- HPLC method for estimation of rivaroxaban in pharmaceutical formulationDownload Article

    V. Shivashankar, M. Gandhimathi, T.K. Ravi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (406-410)
    • No of Download = 1380

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    A simple RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Rivaroxaban in formulation. Rivaroxaban is a direct factor Xa inhibitor which is indicated for the prevention various coagulative disorders. A HIBAR- 5μ C18 column (250×4.6mm) was used as a stationary phase. The mobile phase consisted of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 3.0 with orthophosphoric acid): Acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40 % v/v and the flow rate was 1 ml/min. The detection was carried in the room temperature at 248 nm. The retention time of Rivaroxaban was 7.45 min. The method was linear in the concentration range of 1-5 mcg/ml with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9978. The method was validated as per ICH guideline and it was successfully applied in the estimation of Rivaroxaban in the tablet formulation.

  3. HPTLC finger print profile of n-hexane extract of Rauwolfia tetraphylla LinnDownload Article

    Vinay K. N, V. Venkata Lakshmi, N. D. Satyanarayan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (411-417)
    • No of Download = 474

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    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the phytochemical composition and HPTLC finger print profile of medicinally useful plant R. tetraphylla L. (Apocyanaceae) leaf n-hexane extract. The CAMAG HPTLC system was used for the finger print profiling using the mobile phase toluene: ethyl acetate: acetic acid (55:45:1 v/v). The profile showed that the leaf extract of R. tetraphylla exhibited several peaks with different Rf values when visualized. At 254nm and 366 nm .At 254 nm a total 14 peaks were observed and at 366nm 10 peaks were observed. The HPTLC profile of R. tetraphylla leaf n-hexane extract is used to identify the number of chemical components and their concentration; this in turn helps to identify the chemical constituents in medicinal products and also in identification of adulterants in medicinal products mainly herbal medicine.

  4. Physicochemical characterization of therapeutic peloids from the surroundings of Costa Rica Arenal VolcanoDownload Article

    German L Madrigal Redondo, Rolando Vargas Zúñiga, Gustavo Carazo Berrocal, Nils Ramírez Arguedas
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (418-427)
    • No of Download = 326

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    Introduction Costa Rica is a volcanic country, containing a variety of peloids with different physicochemical properties; also its main source of income is the tourism. Most of their abundant natural resources have not been characterized and even used yet, this need offer the opportunity to study the physicochemical characteristics of peloids near the Arenal Volcano which may be related to its therapeutic properties, despite of this is a tourist attraction area characterized by hot springs, hotels and spas, it has a low socioeconomic and industrial development, and industrialization of products would create new jobs, and promote the health and wellness tourism, producing a productive linkage. Objective The physicochemical characterization of the Peloids near the Arenal Volcano Costa Rica and relate them to their therapeutic properties. Methods Peloids were characterized by tests such as pH, rheology, density, DSC, X-ray diffraction and thermal conductivity. Results and conclusions Peloids where characterized primarily as kandites billaminars, with a thixotropic flow, high in Fe2O3 , Al2O3, SIO2, Na2O, TiO2, ZrO2 minerals, an acid 4,70 pH, allowing them for the formulation of masks and other anti-psoriasis and anti-acne pharmaceutical forms.

  5. Analytical method validation for quantitative estimation of chloramben by HPLC for assay of amiben’ DS chloramben herbicideDownload Article

    K. Vinod Kumar, C. Ramanjulu & N. Venkata Subba Naidu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (428-441)
    • No of Download = 398

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    A simple, selective, precise and accurate High Performance liquid Chromatographic method for the analysis of Chloramben in its formulations was developed and validated in the present study. The mobile phase consist a mixture of 0.05% H3PO4 solution and acetonitrile in the proportion 20: 80 (v/v). This was found to give sharp peak of Chloramben at a run time of 15 min. HPLC analysis of Chloramben was carried out at a wave length of 225 nm with a flow rate of 1.0mL/ min. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration curve showed a good linear relationship with a regression coefficient 0.999 in the concentration range of 50% to 150%. The linear regression equation was y =3476.7 x - 41.412. The developed method was employed with a high degree of precision and accuracy for the analysis of Chloramben. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, robustness, ruggedness and specificity. The Precision, accuracy, sensitivity, short retention time and composition of the mobile phase indicated that this method is useful for the quantification of Chloramben.

  6. Formulation and development of mucoadhesive tablets of lafutidine by using design of experimentDownload Article

    Ganesh Kumar Gudas, D.V.R.N. Bhikshapathi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (442-455)
    • No of Download = 411

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    The aim of the present work was to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive tablets of lafutidine to prolong the gastric residence time after oral administration. Formulations were prepared using 33 Gum Kondagogu, Gum Olibanum and Guar Gum (as independent variables) on mucoadhesive strength, drug release and Ex vivo residence time (as dependent variables). The tablets were evaluated for various parameters such as compatibility studies, drug content, weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, swelling studies, in vitro drug release studies, in vitro mucoadhesion strength , Ex vivo residence time test, In vivo tests, bioadhesion test in stomach, bioavailability, X-ray studies and release rate kinetics. The drug-polymer interaction was also studied by conducting FTIR. The in vitro release inetics studies reveal that all formulations fits well with Zero order, followed by Korsmeyer-Peppas, Higuchi and the mechanism of drug release is erosion. After analysis of different evaluation parameters and drug release kinetics, formulation code F22 was selected as a promising formulation for delivery of lafutidine as a mucoadhesive Gastroretentive tablet with best mucoadhesive strength and 99.54% drug release at 12th hour. The main effects and the interaction terms were quantitatively evaluated by quadratic model. The stability studies were carried out at 40°C/75% RH for 180 days. There was no significant change in the physical property and weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, in vitro drug release studies, in vitro mucoadhesion strength, and drug content during the study period.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets of solifenacinDownload Article

    Salma Yasmeen, Afreen Qureshi, M. Suresh Babu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (456-467)
    • No of Download = 888

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    Drug delivery via buccal route, using bioadhesive dosage forms offers such a novel route of drug administration. Buccal delivery involves administration of desired drug through the buccal mucosal membrane lining of oral cavity. Extensive first-pass metabolism and drug degradation in the harsh gastrointestinal environment can be circumvented by administering the drug via buccal route. The mucosal lining of oral cavity offers some distinct advantages. It is richly vascularized and more accessible for the administration and removal of a dosage form. Additionally, buccal drug delivery has high patient acceptability compared to other non-oral routes of drug administration. In the present study, an attempt was made to design and evaluate mucoadhesive buccal tablets of solifenacin. Different formulations of solifenacin having polymers at different concentrations were prepared by direct compression method. Drug and polymer interactions were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and no interactions were detected with the used polymers. solifenacin pure drug was evaluated for preformulation parameters. Among all formulations F2 and F8 were optimized with drug release 98.6% and 99.6% respectively. But mucoadhesion time for F8 was less than F2 (<8hrs).hence F2 was considered as best formulation. Among nine formulations, formulation F2 containing HPMC KM4 (10%) exhibits in-vitro drug release of 98.6% in 8 hrs. All the formulations were subjected to post compression parameters and showed uniformity within limits. The optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability and drug content and were within specified limits. F2 was optimized based on sustained drug release at 98.6% in 8 hrs. The optimized buccoadhesive formulation followed zero-order kinetics and non-fickian release mechanism. Stability studies as per ICH guidelines showed that there were no significant changes in the drug content.

  8. Formulation and invitro evaluation of immediate release tablets of fenofibrate solid dispersions by different techniques.Download Article

    Mohammed Omar, Anil Middha, Dr. D. Ramakrishna
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (468-477)
    • No of Download = 922

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    The aim of the present research work, Fenofibrate a BCS class II Anti hyperlipidemic drug belongs to fibrate class was formulated as solid dispersions by using various hydrophilic carriers to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. Solvent evaporation method, Fusion Method and Melt Solvent method are used to prepare solid dispersions of fenofibrate. Solid state characterization of solid dispersions is done by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Fourier-Transform Infrared spectrometry and X-ray powder Diffraction studies, Scanning electron microscopy. The solid dispersions can be evaluated by in-vitro dissolution studies. To develop the solid oral dosage form (Tablets) with fenofibrate solid dispersions. To study the physical parameters of tablets prepared by direct compression, which includes hardness, friability, weight variation, and disintegration. To estimate the % drug content in the solid dispersions and the fabricated formulations. To evaluate the drug release from the tablets by in-vitro dissolution studies and to compare in-vitro dissolution profile of fabricated formulation with marketed formulation.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of oro-dispersible tablets of ivabradine by sublimation techniqueDownload Article

    Afreen Quereshi, Salma Yasmeen, M.Suresh Babu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (478-490)
    • No of Download = 882

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    Recent developments in Oro-dispersible/disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to elderly and children who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the mouth disintegrating tablet of ivabradine. Tablets of drug were prepared by sublimation method or technique. In the formulation of ivabradine oro dispersible tablets, initially ivabradine fused with cross Carmellose sodium (optimized super disintegrate), is used as API and sublimating agent menthol were added to the formulation, results showed that 99% was released in 15min in formulation (F7), and 94% was released in 30min from the formulation containing super disintegrant Cross povidone (F8), and 95% was released in 30min from the formulation containing super disintegrant sodium starch glycolate (F9). In formulation F7, the super disintegrant CCS (15%) and sublimating agent menthol (10%) was added and 99% was released in 15min, which is the highest amongst all and hence this is finalized. All these tablets showed required hardness, limited friability and good disintegration time (with in IP and USP limits). All the formulations were evaluated for drug content and results are obtained. Amongst all formulations, formulation F7 and CCS as super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time and faster dissolution.

  10. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of bosentan osmatic controlled release tabletsDownload Article

    Mohammed Asif Hussain , Komarapalem Vamshi Krishna, Maimumna Anjum
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (491-499)
    • No of Download = 932

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    In the present work, an industrially important project entitled “Formulation and In vitro Evaluation of Bosentan Osmotic Controlled Release Tablets” was undertaken. The study was undertaken with an aim to formulate Bosentan as osmotic controlled release tablets. During this phase of investigation various factors that likely to affect the performance of the osmotic controlled release was studied. The release kinetics, dissolution rate, process variables such as hardness, weight variation are some of the factors found critical during the development based on the experimental findings. Preformulation studies were done initially and results directed the further course of formulation. With the literature review data, Preformulation and prototype formulation trails were started. Direct compression method was used for formulation. Granules were evaluated for tests such as bulk density, Tapped density, Compressibility Index and Hausner ratio before being punched as tablets. Tablets were tested for weight variation, thickness and friability, in-vitro dissolution tests were performed and percentage drug release was calculated. Dissolution profile of formulation – F7 was optimized based on evaluation parameters. In the dissolution modeling all the developed formulations followed Korsemeyer-peppas drug release. The optimized formulation F7 followed Korsemeyer-peppas drug release kinetics model i.e super case 2 transports and non-Fickian model. In the present study, polymethacrylates were found to play a great role in controlling release of drug Bosentan from the osmotic system. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the formulation is robust in the performance and it is less likely to be affected by various factors studied.

  11. Evaluation of bio-equivalence and bio availability of levetiracetam 1000 mg tablet with reference to standard 1000 mg tablet in normal male in human healthy volunteersDownload Article

    Bhukya Ramesh, Santhosh Pawar V
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (500-504)
    • No of Download = 307

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    This present study was designed on a treatise on open labeled randomized double blinded two period crossover evaluations of bio-equivalence and bioavailability of levetiracetam 1000 mg tablet with reference to standard 1000mg tablet in normal male healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. From the clinical data it can be concluded that the study objectives like the safety and efficacy of the test product has been achieved. Based on clinical, pharmacokinetic and statistical data obtained from 22 healthy, adult, male, human subjects under fasting conditions, it was concluded that a single dose of test formulation ‘t’ containing drug levetiracetam 1000mg was found to be safe and bioequivalent to the reference formulation ‘r’ (keppra 1000mg) containing levetiracetam 1000mg as 90 % confidence interval for the ratios of means of test and reference parameters such as ln-transformed cmax, auc0-t and auc0-¥ of drug levetiractam fell within the bioequivalence acceptance range of 80.00% – 125.00 %. This study gave us insight that a levetiractam 1000mg tablet was bioequivalent to keppra 1000mg in terms of rate and extent of absorption under fasting conditions.

  12. Formulation development and invitro characterization of oro dispersible tablets of CelecoxibDownload Article

    Pamu Sandhya, Ruby Fatima Khatoon
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (505-511)
    • No of Download = 518

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    In this study was to prepare fast disintegrating tablets of Celecoxib by using super disintegrants in varying proportions. The tablets were prepared by using various super disintegrants like crospovidone, cros carmellose sodium, explotab, magnesium sterate, talc and microcrystalline cellulose. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, wetting time, water absorption ratio, and disintegration time (DT) and dissolution study. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the prepared tablets were shown good pre & post compression parameters and they passed all the quality control evaluation parameters as per I.P limits. Among all the formulations F3 formulation containing crospovidone as super disintegrant, showed maximum % drug release i.e., 99.8 % in 6 min hence it is considered as optimized formulation.

  13. A review on physostigmine: As antidote and treatment of Alzhemier diseaseDownload Article

    Ankit Singh, Shobhit Prakash Srivastava, Mohammad Asad, Pallavi Pathak, Namita srivastava, Shailesh Kumar
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (512-517)
    • No of Download = 277

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    Physostigmine is Anticholinesterase (AChE) agent belongs to the class of serine hydrolases. The active site of AChE comprises teo distinct regions an anionic site that possesses a glutamate residue and an esteratic site in which a histidine imidozole ring and a serine –OH group are particularly important. Physostigmine is tertiary amine derivative. Physotigmine is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, atony in the GI tract, and glaucoma. More recently, they have received attention as symptomatic drug treatments in patients suffering from Alzheimer disease. Physostigmine is another name is Eserine and Isopto- Eserine. Physostigmine is available in various salt forms like Physostigmine salicylate and Physostigmine sulfate. Physostigmine action of main site postganlionic parasympathetic junction and duration of action is medium. It is rapidly absorbed on oral or parental administration, crosses the blood brain barrier and exerts central cholinergic action. This paper reviews the pharmacological and pharmaceutical properties of Physostigmine.

  14. Formulation and invitro evaluation of nystatin organo gelsDownload Article

    Mohammed Asif Hussain, Somoju Srikanth, Maimuna Anjum
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (518-525)
    • No of Download = 507

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    The purpose of topical dosage form is to conveniently deliver drug across a localized area of the skin. To develop an ideal dosage form, one must take into account flux of the drug across the skin, nature of drugs, patient acceptability of the formulation, etc.., Nystatin is categorized as synthetic allylamine antifungal drug and is successfully used to treat Fungal disorders. On this contest, emulgel was formulated using carbopol 934 and HPMC, liquid paraffin as oil phase, emulsifying agents like tween 20 and span 20 and propylene glycol as permeation enhancersOn basis of quality of organogels produces total eight formulations F1 to F8 were selected. They were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, rheological study, spreadability, drug content and in-vitro drug permeation study. Thus, the formulated organogel had a distinct advantage over existing conventional dosage form in that the drug permeation was found to be rapid across the skin and hence the increased therapeutic response by bypassing 1st pass metabolism and with no gastrointestinal problems and patient compliance.

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