IJPAR | International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

ISSN: 2320_2831

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  1. Effect of PGPR on catalase activity of Indian mustard under saline stressDownload Article

    Meenakshi Nandal, Pragya mahajan, Rajni hooda
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (01-09)
    • No of Download = 451

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    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) plays an important role in agricultural systems, especially as biofertilizer. Inoculation of plant material with PGPR can protect plants against salt stress through an increase in plant growth parameters and the regulation of ion concentration and antioxidant enzymes. Salinity produces oxidative stress by altering the general metabolic processes and enzymatic activities and enhanced occurrence of damaging toxic molecule i.e. reactive oxygen species (ROS). Plants can run away the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species by developing a physiologically powerful defence system together with antioxidant enzymes like CAT, POD and SOD. Catalase, which is involved in the degradation of H2O2 into water and oxygen, is the major H2O2 scavenging enzyme in all-aerobic organisms. Catalase is critical for maintaining the redox balance during oxidative stress and functions as a cellular sink for H2O2. Microbial inoculation to alleviate salinity stress could provide an innovative and cost-effective alternative to overcome salinity stress in soils. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the H2O2 scavenging effects of beneficial bacterial strains of Bacillus species under saline stress in three different varieties of Indian mustard.

  2. Taste masking and improvement of anti microbial activity of cefuroxime axetil oral suspensionDownload Article

    Renju Prabhakaran, Janakiraman K, Jyoti Harindran
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (10-18)
    • No of Download = 655

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    Objective Cefuroxime axetil is a second generation cephalosporin antibiotic active against wide range of organisms, which is a prodrug of Cefuroxime. Cefuroxime axetil is extremely bitter in taste, which reduces the patient compliance when taken as oral suspension especially in pediatric population. The objective of this study was to mask the bitter taste of Cefuroxime axetil using Hydroxy propyl betacyclodextrin [HP- Betacyclodextrin] by inclusion complexation method and to evaluate the improvement in antimicrobial activity of oral suspension, compared to a leading marketed product. Methods The complexation of Cefuroxime axetil and HP- Betacyclodextrin was carried out at 1:1, 1:2, 1:2.5 and 1:3 ratios respectively. The prepared suspension was evaluated for various parameters like pH, viscosity, redispersibility, pourability, assay and invitro dissolution profile. Comparative evaluation of the taste masking and antimicrobial sensitivity tests were carried out for the developed formulations and marketed product. Results All the formulations and the marketed product were meeting all the quality parameters. Formulations with 1:3 and 1:2.5 ratios showed better taste masking compared to the marketed product and the formulation with 1:2.5 ratio shown to have better invitro dissolution pattern. The optimized formulation was found to have better antimicrobial activity against selected organisms compared to the marketed product. Conclusion Considering the invitro dissolution profile and taste evaluation with marketed product, formulation with 1:2.5 ratio of Cefuroxime axetil and HP- Betacyclodextrin was selected as the optimum formulation, which also demonstrated improved antimicrobial activity.

  3. Novel approaches in solid lipid nano particles and drug targettingDownload Article

    Muthadi Radhika, N.Sriram
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (19-40)
    • No of Download = 1144

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    Solid lipid nanoparticles are at the new wave of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery, clinical medicine and research as well as in other varied sciences. Due to their unique size-dependent properties, lipid nanoparticles offer the possibility to develop new therapeutics. By putting forward physiological safe lipids in place of polymers to prepare lipid nanoparticles, a novel formulation technique came into light. The ability to incorporate drugs into nanocarriers offers a new prototype in drug delivery that could be used for secondary and tertiary levels of drug targeting. Hence, solid lipid nanoparticles hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery and hence have attracted wide attention of researchers. In addition, wide pharmaceutical applications of SLNs in drug delivery are explored. Diverse instrumental techniques have been highlighted to characterize the physiochemical properties of SLNs. various routes of administration of SLNs as drug carriers are logistically reviewed and discussed. The different types of nanocarriers which were based on solid lipid like solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, lipid drug conjugates are discussed with their structural differences. Different production methods which are suitable for large scale production and applications of solid lipid nanoparticles are described and aspects of solid lipid nanoparticles route of administration and their biodistribution are also incorporated. SLNs may open new vistas in therapy of complex diseases like cancer.

  4. Preparation, optimization and evaluation of liposomes encapsulating diclofenac sodium and charge inducers to enhance stability using lipid hydration method.Download Article

    Rajendar Meesa, Srinivas Ampati
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (41-48)
    • No of Download = 533

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    Aims The aim of the study is to encapsulate, optimize and characterize the liposomal preparations of various formulations of Diclofenac sodium (DS) along with phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, stearylamine and dicetylphosphate. Settings and design Rotary evaporator is set at a temperature of 400C with constant rotation speed. Instruments used during the study includes Whirl mixer, Hellos software, zetasizer, Ultracentrifugation, Dialysis tube and UV Spectrophotometer. Methods and Material Diclofenac Sodium, Phosphatidylcholine, Cholesterol, Dicetylphosphate, Stearylamine, Phosphate buffer and solvents. Liposomes were prepared by Lipid-Hydration technique using rotary evaporator (RE-300). The prepared liposomes were analyzed for size, zeta potential, percentage of drug encapsulated, in-vitro drug release and stability studies. Results Particle size of the drug loaded liposome was decreased when compared to that of the drug free. Encapsulation efficiency of the drug loaded liposomes with PC shows increase in the percentage of drug encapsulated to that of the lower concentrated vesicles and positive charge inducer have revealed elevated encapsulation efficiency. Liposomes composed of PC: CHOL: SA observed to be released at high rate and stability studies confirms that PC: CHOL: SA is supreme stable at varied temperatures. Conclusions Phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and stearylamine based preparations posses the suitable % drug encapsulated and release rate. The composition PC: CHOL: SA at a concentration of 16:8:4 µmoles proved as a stable suspension. From the study it can be concluded that cholesterol and stearylamine based phosphatidylcholine liposomes are most suitable to encapsulate the Diclofenac sodium.

  5. A Review - Challenges Faced By an Analyst for Developing Method for Analysis and Standardization of DrugsDownload Article

    Dewal L. Kondalwar, Suchita V.Ghumre, Dr. Varsha M. Jadhav, Dr. Vilasrao J. Kadam
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (49-55)
    • No of Download = 730

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    The development of the pharmaceuticals brought a revolution in human health. These pharmaceuticals would serve their intent only if they are free from impurities and are administered in an appropriate amount. To make drugs serve their purpose, various chemical and instrumental methods were developed at regular intervals, which are involved in the estimation of drugs. These pharmaceuticals may develop impurities at various stages of their development, transportation and storage, which make the pharmaceutical risky to be administered thus; they must be detected and quantitated. For this analytical instrumentation and methods play an important role. This review highlights the role of the analytical instrumentation and the analytical methods in assessing the quality of the drugs. The review highlights a variety of analytical techniques such as chromatographic, spectroscopic, photometric and thermo analyticalmethods that have been applied in the analysis of drugs.

  6. Stability indicating RP-HPLC method for the determination of amlodipine besylateDownload Article

    Sumera Kousar, Farhana begum
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (56-77)
    • No of Download = 740

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    A simple, specific, sensitive, accurate, precise, economic & reproducible RP-HPLC method was developed for the amlodipine and validated. The proposed method utilises the Agilent technologies: Agilent 1260&1290 series. Column ZORBAX C18 100 x 4.6mm with 3.5microns particle size and a software of ECZ chrome elite, 0.2µ Millipore filter paper and by using optimum mobile phase methanol: acetonitrile: Water (80:10:10) at flow rate of 1.0ml/min at 35+/- 2oc temperature. The eluent was detected at 230nm by using U.V detector. The retention time of Amlodipine besylate was found to be 1.5 min and is economically feasible. The linearity was observed at 2-50µ.g/ml. The mean recoveries were found to be 100±2%. The method was validated for system suitability, specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, ruggedness, robustness, LOD & LOQ as per ICH guidelines. Limit of detection and Limit of quantification of the method was found to be 2.93µg/ml and 8µg/ml shows that the developed method has adequate sensitivity. (r2 > 0.99), %R.S.D of precision was found to be <2. The developed method was used for the stability, forced degradation studies. It can be used in the quality control and in-vitro dissolution of the drug. The proposed method is precise, economic, with high sensitivity and less retention time.

  7. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of candesartan liquid solid compacts to enhance drug solubilityDownload Article

    Sai raju.A, Santhosh Kumar Kassula
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (78-85)
    • No of Download = 643

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    Liquisolid technique was chosen to enhance the dissolution properties of Candesartan. The Candesartan liquisolid compacts were prepared by using PEG 400, propylene glycol as the nonvolatile liquid vehicles. Avicel PH 102 and Aerosil were used as the carrier and coating material, respectively. From the results obtained from executed experiments, it can be concluded that the preformulation studies like melting point, flow properties of Candesartan were compiled with IP standards. The FTIR spectra revealed that, there was no interaction between polymer and drug. Polymers used were compatible with Candesartan. Among the PG in 1:3 ratio (F7) was showing best release. Stability studies showed that there were no significant changes in physical and chemical properties of tablet of formulation F7 after 3 months. This research work has produced encouraging results in terms of increasing the in vitro dissolution of poorly soluble drugs such as Candesartan using liquisolid technology. The technique being simple and effective can also be extended to other poorly soluble drugs. The in vivo performance of the liquisolid compacts has to be studied using animal models to claim a complete success in the development of these formulations.

  8. Design and evaluation of edible gels of alendronateDownload Article

    Karunakar Koyyada, Dr. Gampa Vijay Kumar, K.R.S.Sambasiva Rao
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (86-94)
    • No of Download = 628

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    The Aim of the present study is to Design and Evaluate Edible gel (EG) loaded with Alendronate drug. The Bisphosphonate called Alendronate used for osteoporosis and several other bone diseases. Ten Formulation (EG1-EG10) of EG was prepared by varying concentrations of Gellan Gum (0.1-0.5%), 0.3% and above the concentration of polymer showed good physical and Rheological properties. Optimized formulation among EG was EG8 with no syneresis showing 99% drug release with good consistency and viscosity increasing the mouth feel. Based on the stability of EG at room temperature and also due to its high patient compliance based on appearance and ease of administration, EG was preferred as better dosage form for geriatrics and paediatrics.

  9. Design, evaluation and comparitive studies of oral thin films of alendronateDownload Article

    Karunakar Koyyada, Dr. Gampa Vijay Kumar, K.R.S.Sambasiva Rao
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (95-107)
    • No of Download = 683

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    The Aim of the present study is to design and evaluate fast dissolving Oral thin films (OTF) of Alendronate drug. The bisphosphonate called alendronate used for osteoporosis and several other bone diseases. Sixteen Formulations (F1–F16) of OTF were prepared by casting method using different concentrations of polymer increased tensile strength and folding endurance were improved with more dissolution time. 0.3% and above concentration of polymer showed good physical and rheological properties. Optimized formulation among OTF was an F4 with 1.5% Sodium alginate showing good folding endurance, tensile strength, disintegration time and 98.9% drug release with no casting problem and appearance.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of delayed release pantoprazol sodium sesquihydrate pellets by extrusion and spheronization techniqueDownload Article

    N.Raju, N.Sriram, M.Sunil kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (108-118)
    • No of Download = 1039

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    The present invention concerns the development of delayed release pellets of Pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate which are designed to modify the drug release followed by delay of release of action. The use of multiparticulate systems to provide modified release formulations is ever increasing and it is an ideal way of delivering drugs that are acid sensitive and it also aids in effective local delivery. The two most common approaches to pellet formulation are extrusion/spheronization and coating of non-pareil seeds. Pantoprazole core pellets were formulated by using extrusion and spheronization process by polysorbate- 80 as binder. The core pellets were seal coated by HPMC 5CPS as first coating material. To seal coated pellets were again coated by using eudragit L-30 D-55 as enteric coating material to delay the drug release (Eudragit L-30 D-55 concentration is raised to get delayed release of drug). The coated pellets size and shape was observed during processing. The coated pellets were evaluated for surface morphology, assay, in vitro drug release to attain the aim of delayed release. Compatibility studies performed using FTIR revealed no deleterious interactions between drug and excipients. The optimized Formulation (F5) was kept under stability conditions at for 3 months as per ICH guidelines which revealed that the formulation was stable through period of storage.

  11. Design and evaluation of entacapone controlled release trilayer matrix tablets in the management of parkinson’s diseaseDownload Article

    Pavan Kumar Potturi, Y. Sudhakar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (119-129)
    • No of Download = 1084

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    The main objective of the present study was to prepare controlled release (CR) matrix tablets of Entacapone trilayer tablets to achieve zero-order drug release for sustained plasma concentration. Entacapone tablets were prepared by direct compression and consist of middle active layer with different grades of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), Guar gum, ethyl cellulose; upper and lower layers were prepared with Carnauba wax, Guar gum, sodium CMC and DCP. The tablets were also evaluated for physicochemical characteristics and release kinetics. The physicochemical characteristics of the prepared tablets were satisfactory. The developed drug delivery systems showed prolonged drug release rates over a period of 24 h. The release profile of the optimized formulation (HF14) was described by the Zero-order and Higuchi model. These results also demonstrated the suitability of three-layered tablet formulation of Entacapone to provide controlled release for prolonged period of time and improved linearity for Entacapone in comparison to marketed product with conventional drug release profile in the management of Parkinson’s disease.

  12. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with glipizideDownload Article

    M. Sambasiva Rao, A. Sunil Kumar Reddy, A. Ashok Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (130-140)
    • No of Download = 545

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    In the present work, microspheres of Glipizide using Sodium alginate along with Carbopol 934, HPMC as copolymers were formulated to deliver Glipizide via oral route.The results of this investigation indicate that ionic cross linking technique Ionotropic gelation method can be successfully employed to fabricate Glipizide microspheres. The technique provides characteristic advantage over conventional microsphere method, which involves an “all-aqueous” system, avoids residual solvents in microspheres. Other methods utilize larger volume of organic solvents, which are costly and hazardous because of the possible explosion, air pollution, toxicity and difficult to remove traces of organic solvent completely. FT-IR spectra of the physical mixture revealed that the drug is compatible with the polymers and copolymers used. Micromeritic studies revealed that the mean particle size of the prepared optimized microspheres was in the size range of 611µm and are suitable for microspheres for oral administration.Increase in the polymer concentration lead to increase in % Drug entrapment efficiency, Particle size, % swelling.The invitro drug release decreased with increase in the polymer and copolymer concentration.Analysis of drug release mechanism showed that the drug release from the formulations followed zero order kinetics with higuchis model of drug release.Based on the results of evaluation tests formulation coded F3 was concluded as best formulation.

  13. Development and validation of RP- HPLC method for the estimation of dabigatran etexilate mesylate (DEM) in bulk formDownload Article

    N.Madhavi Latha, P.Supriya, G.V.Ramana, K.B.V.Rohith, G.Chaitanya, A.K.M Pawar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (141-147)
    • No of Download = 1525

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    The RP- HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Dabigatran Etexilate Mesylate (DEM) in bulk form. The chromatography was carried out on Unisol C18 (4.6 × 150 mm, 3μm) using a mobile phase of methanol and ammonium acetate buffer in the ratio of 90:10, at a flow rate of 1 ml/minute. The analytes were monitored at 226 nm using a PDA detector. The retention time of the DEM was 2.52 min. The method was linear in the concentration range of 20-100 µg/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines.

  14. Novel and efficient cytotoxic 2-alkyl, 4-chloro-5,6-dihydro-2h-pyran derivatives of aplysiapyranoids a-d,an anti solod tumer of human cells.Download Article

    V. Harikrishna, Gnaneswar Duggheni
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (148-151)
    • No of Download = 326

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    Cytotoxic 2-alkyl, 4- chloro-5, 6- dihydro-2H-pyran derivatives were first synthesized in single step method by using recyclable catalytic chloroaluminate immobilized in ionic liquids the reaction of aldehydes and ketones with homopropargylic alcohols using chloroaluminate ionic liquids generated the dihyropyran derivatives in good yields and with high stereoselectivity.

  15. Nutritional importance of Lepidium sativum L. (Garden cress/ Chandrashoor): A ReviewDownload Article

    Shail, Dwivedi Manjari, Kumar Neeraj Gupta LN
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (152-160)
    • No of Download = 2283

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    Lepidium sativum (Garden cress) belonging to Cruciferae family, widely grown in India, Europe and US. It has been considered as an important medicinal plant since the Vedic era. Garden-cress seeds are used as a medicine in Ayurvedic System of Medicine. Lepidium sativum description is available in the Ayurvedic classical text with the name as Chandrasoora, Chandrika, Vasapushpa, and the seeds, known as hurf or halim in local language in India. In Ayurvedic Medicine prescribed to prevent postnatal complications. Also, it has health promoting properties which can be used as a functional food. It is also useful in the treatment of dysentery, pain in the abdomen, blood and skin disorders, injuries, tumors, and eye diseases. Garden cress may stimulate the production of breast milk and prevent postnatal complication. Garden cress seeds are bitter. A Galactogogue is a substance that promotes lactation in humans and other animals. The effects of the germinating seeds were studied to determine the potential for slowing down the hydrolysis of starch to glucose in diabetic persons. Garden cress is genetically related to watercress and mustard, sharing their peppery, tangy flavor and aroma.

  16. Therapeutic journey of synthetic betacarboline derivatives: A short reviewDownload Article

    Alivelu Samala
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (161-168)
    • No of Download = 872

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    A large number of medicinal compounds which have been discovered belong to a major class of heterocyclic compounds containing nitrogen as a hetero atom. The versatile synthetic applicability and biological activities of these heterocyclic compounds has helped the medicinal chemist to plan, organize and implement new approaches towards discovery of novel drugs. . β-carboline also known as nor-harmane is a nitrogen containing heterocyclic compound. It belongs to the group of indole alkaloids and consists of pyridine ring that is fused to an indole skeleton. The structure of β-carboline is similar to that of tryptamine, with the ethylamine chain re-connected to the indole ring via an extra carbon atom, to produce a three- ringed structure. It is a key pharmacophore present in a large number of natural tricyclic alkaloids. The natural and synthetic β-carboline derivatives are reported to have pharmacological effects in several aspects, such as the anticancer activity against colon and lung cancers, central nervous system activity in mammals and also as the biological control agent for receptor research on bio-enzyme inhibitors. Some β-carbolines are known to bind with high affinity to the central benzodiazepine receptors with anticonvulsive and anxiolytic properties. Nor-harmine also prevents bone loss by suppressing osteoclastogenesis. The Pictet-Spengler condensation is commonly used to synthesize β-carbolines, This comprehensive overview summarizes the medicinal importance of synthetic betacarboline derivatives, which may be useful for researchers to explore the hidden potential of nor-harmine.

  17. The unique structural and activity of the compactin as hypocholesterlemic agent, have aroused to synthesize challenging targetDownload Article

    Dr. J. S. Yadav, Dr. Gnaneswar Duggheni
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (169-178)
    • No of Download = 417

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    Hypercholesterolemia is a primary risk factor in coronary heart disease which is the major cause of deaths in the Western World. Clinical studies with lipid lowering agents have established that lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels reduces the incidence of cardiovascular mortality. In humans, more than one-half of total body cholesterol is derived from de novo synthesis. The rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis is the reduction of HMG CoA to mevalonic acid. There is the attractive possibility that compactin or some related compound might be useful as a hypocholesterlemic agent.

  18. Novel and efficient cytotoxic 2-alkyl, 4-chloro-5,6-dihydro-2h-pyran derivatives of aplysiapyranoids a-d,an anti solod tumer of human cells. Download Article

    Dr. V. Harikrishna, Prof. Dr. Gnaneswar Duggheni
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (179-182)
    • No of Download = 456

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    Cytotoxic 2-alkyl, 4- chloro-5, 6- dihydro-2H-pyran derivatives were first synthesized in single step method by using recyclable catalytic chloroaluminate immobilized in ionic liquids the reaction of aldehydes and ketones with homopropargylic alcohols using chloroaluminate ionic liquids generated the dihyropyran derivatives in good yields and with high stereoselectivity.

  19. Management of Type-2 Diabetes mellitus with Chanaka yoga as a Nutraceutical substanceDownload Article

    Anjali Singh, K R C Reddy
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (183-189)
    • No of Download = 917

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    Prevention of occurrence or development of diabetes complications by providing a good metabolic control could only be achieved through diabetic patients’ training. The aim of the study is to determine the effects of Ayurvedic Nutraceuticals, which is going with the treatment of patients with type-2 diabetes on nutrition knowledge and consumption habits. Chanaka Yoga is the formulation of Chanaka, Haridra, Daruharidra, Amalaki Haritaki and Bibhitaki. As in many research papers have shown the Anti-Diabetic effect of describing herbs in Chanaka Yoga. Fibre presents in bengal gram especially pectin may lower cholesterol levels by absorbing bile acids. Sodium curcuminate present in Haridra causes an increase in total excretion of bile salts, bilirubin and cholesterol. The extract of Berberis aristata (root) has strong potential to regulate glucose homeostasis through decreased gluconeogenesis. Amalki decreased synthesis of cholesterol and enhanced reverse cholesterol transport by elevating HDL-C level. Aqueous extract of Haritaki reduced the elevated blood glucose and increase in glycosylated hemoglobin. The plant extracts of Bibhitaki decreased the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, urea, uric acid and creatinine.

  20. RP-HPLC method development and validation of capecitabine in bulk drug and formulationDownload Article

    G.Chaitanya, G.Venkata Ramana, A. K. M. Pawar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (190-198)
    • No of Download = 1107

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    Objective To Develop and validate a simple, selective, rapid, precise and accurate High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for determination of capecitabine in bulk and its pharmaceutical formulation product. Method RP-HPLC method was performed by using a mobile phase consisting mixture of Methanol and Ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.5) in the proportion 60:40v/v. A ZORBAX Eclipse plus C18 (4.6 ×100mm, 3.5μ) column was used as a stationary phase. . HPLC analysis of Capecitabine was carried out at a wavelength of 241nm with a flow rate of 1ml/min. Results The linear regression analysis data for the calibration curve showed a good linear relationship with a correlation coefficient 0.9984. The linear regression equation was y=3726540. 2 x+27390388. 1. This was found to give a sharp peak of Capecitabine at a retention time of 2.77min.Validation parameters were evaluated for the method according to the ICH (Q2R1) guidelines. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the method were 0.6721μg/mL and 1.9989μg/mL, respectively. The %RSD values for Intra-day precision and Inter-day precision were found to be 0.31 % and 0.30% respectively. Accuracy of the method was determined through recovery studies which were found to be within 97.57-102.22%. Conclusion The method was validated for system suitability, accuracy, precision, robustness and ruggedness. The precision, accuracy, sensitivity, short retention time and composition of the mobile phase indicated that this method is better than the earlier methods developed for the quantification of Capecitabine.

  21. Preparation and evaluation of microspheres loaded with ranolazine for controlled release with polyacrylic polymerDownload Article

    Niraj, Srikrishna R.M, Prof. V Gowda, Prof. K.V. Ramana Murthy
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (199-217)
    • No of Download = 569

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    Microencapsulation of drugs in a hydrophobic matrix such as Eudragit microspheres controls the release of drugs. Eudragit polymers are series of acrylate and methacrylate polymers available in different ionic forms. Eudragit L 100 and EudragitL 100-55 are insolublein aqueous media but they are permeable and both have pH-independent release profiles.Polymer Eudragit and drug Ranolazine (earlier passed through sieve no. 100) were dissolved in specified quantity of acetone-methanol mixture. Required quantity of Aluminum stearate was added as deflocculating agent and the mixture was stirred at 500 rpm on a magnetic stirrer at 10°C. The resulting emulsion was stirred at 35°C for four hr. The organic solvent acetone-methanol was completely removed by evaporation; finally the prepared solidified microspheres were filtered, and then washed 6 times with an aliquot of 50 ml n-hexane to remove all the presence of liquid paraffin from microspheres. Dissolution studies were carried out at pH 1.2 HCl buffer for 2 hrs followed by 7 hrs in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer using USP XXI dissolution apparatus type II(basket type). Dissolution media having volume of 900ml was kept at 37ºC ± 0.5 ºC. Initial drug release from Eudragit microspheres at intestinal environment by biphasic manner and associated with an initial burst release of 21.27 % to 74.94 %, 10.19 % to 67.57 %, 8.35 % to 61.53 %, 27.92 % to 75.69 %, 31.32 % to 72.37 % and 37.48 % to 65.89 % drug from F1, F2, F3, F4, F5 and F6 microspheres respectively. The burst release in intestinal pH might be due to the release of surface accumulated drug. After initial burst effect, the subsequent release of drug was slow and sustained. F1 formulation can be supposed to be the optimized formulation. This optimization can be attributed to good percent release of drug at end of 9th hour. Also F1 formulation has shown a good consistency in shape, sphericity and uniformity in the preparation of microspheres.

  22. Development and validation of UV- spectrophotometric method for the estimation of dabigatran etexilate mesylate (dem)Download Article

    U.Harini, N. Madhavi latha, A.K.M Pawar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (218-223)
    • No of Download = 562

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    Objective To develop and validate a simple, accurate, precise and cost effective UV-Spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Dabigatran Etexilate Mesylate (DEM). Method UV spectrophotometric method was performed at 226 nm and the samples were prepared with methanol as solvent. Results Linearity range was found at 2-10µg/ml in UV with correlation coefficient (R) 0.999 and the regression equation is y = 0.066x + 0.012. Conclusion The proposed methods were simple, precise, Accurate and can be used for the analysis of drug in bulk form.

  23. Study the antimicrobial effect of “Palash beej and Palash pushp” on urinary tract infection through culture and sensitivity testDownload Article

    Dr. Ashok Kumar Madan Singh, Dr.A. B. More, Dr. Vidula S. Gujjarwar, Dr. Anup Jain
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (224-233)
    • No of Download = 785

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    Despite decades of dramatic progress in their treatment and prevention, infectious diseases remain a major cause of death and debility and by observing increasing prevalence of urinary tract infection and changing epidemiology of infectious disease with the advent of antimicrobial agents, so it’s time to reopen and evaluate the ancient literature of medicine and search for the appropriate medicine. In Ayurvedic texts Krimi is of various types, some of which can be correlated with microbes e.g. - Abhayantar Krimi. As Palash (Butea monosperma) also has an action of krimighana and frequently used in mutrakrichra, so it is imperative for us to prove the antimicrobial properties of the mentioned drugs using scientific parameters. Total 50 number of urinary tract infected patients selected randomly and studied from B.V. Medical foundation’s Ayurved Hospital, Rognidan department. Extract of Palash beeja and Pushpa was prepared. A separate sensitivity disc was prepared. Sensitivity was tested on different organism detected during the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility found more toward uropathogen E-coli on both groups. Higher concentration of Palash Pushpa (Butea-monosperma) & Beeja extract was found more susceptible compare to lower concentration. On comparing both groups antimicrobial susceptibility of Palash Pushpa (Buteamonosperma) extract was found more than Palash beeja (Butea-monosperma) extract to all uropathogen.

  24. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of aerial part of Argemone mexicana linnDownload Article

    Raveendra Singh kushtwar, Dr. Anurag
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (234-238)
    • No of Download = 405

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    Antioxidant compounds in food plays an important role as a health protecting factor. Scientific evidence suggests that antioxidant reduce risk for chronic diseases including cancer and heart diseases. Primary source of naturally occurring antioxidants are grains, fruits and vegetables. Plant sourced food antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenes, phenolic acids, phytate and phytoestrogens have been recognized as having the potential to reduce disease risk. Most of the antioxidant compounds in a typical diet are derived from plant sources and belong to various classes of compounds with a wide variety of physical and chemical properties. The free radical scavenging activity was done by DPPH-scavenging model and Hydrogen-peroxide scavenging model. The Hydrogen-peroxide scavenging showed the 87.1% which is comparable to the standard Ascorbic acid (90.5 %). It was found that the ethanolic extract of Argemone mexicana linn (EEAM) showed the maximum percentage inhibition of 61% whereas the aqueous extract (AEAM) showed the least inhibition i.e. 19.2. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts was expressed as IC50. The IC50 value is defined as the concentration (in µg/ml) of extracts that inhibits the formation of DPPH and hydrogen peroxide radicals by 50 %. All the tests were performed in triplicate and the graph was plotted with average of three observations.

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