IJPAR | International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

ISSN: 2320_2831

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  1. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets of losartan by using natural polymers.Download Article

    P.Sandhya, P.Vijaya Spoorthy, A.Susmitha, Safooratalat, K.Ashwin, G.Ganesh Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (239-244)
    • No of Download = 338

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    Losartan, a drug widely used in the treatment of hypertension. However, its extensive first pass metabolism results in poor bioavailability. The objective of present research work is to design and evaluate the sustained release of mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Losartan with a goal to increase the bioavailability, reduce dosing frequency and improve patient compliance. The tablets were prepared using Gum Kondagagu, Gum Olibanum and Guar Gum as mucoadhesive polymers. Nine formulations were developed with varying concentration of polymers. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, weight variation, thickness, percentage of drug content, Surface pH, in-vitro studies like swelling, mucoadhesive strength and drug release. Formulation (F6) containing Gum Olibanum with highest concentration showed good mucoadhesive strength (24.43) and maximum drug release of 99.15% in 6 hrs. Swelling increase with increase in concentration of Gum Olibanum in tablets. Swelling pH was found to be 6.10. Formulation (F6) follows zero-order drug release. FTIR studied showed no evidence on interaction between drug and polymers. The results indicate that the mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Losartan may be good choice to bypass the extensive hepatic first pass metabolism with an improvement in the bioavailability of Losartan through buccal mucosa.

  2. Solubility enhancement of poorly soluble antiretrovirals by novel self emulsifying drug delivery systemDownload Article

    V. Vijay Kumar, J. Raju
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (245-256)
    • No of Download = 736

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    Rilpivirine is a pharmaceutical drug used for the treatment of HIV infection. The drug is characterized with poor aqueous solubility and dissolution rate leading to low bioavailability of the drug. Hence, there is a need for the improvement of the solubility and dissolution of such drugs. The Aim of present study was to develop self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for enhancement of solubility, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of model drug Rilpivirine. Fifteen formulations were prepared using different oils, surfactants and co-surfactants. A pseudo ternary phase diagram was constructed to identify the self-micro emulsification region. Further, the resultant formulations were investigated for clarity, phase separation, drug content, % transmittance, globule size, freeze-thaw stability and in vitro dissolution studies. On the basis of dissolution profile and other above mentioned studies, F5 was found to be the best formulation of Rilpivirine SEDDS which contains Captex 355(Oil), Kolliphor RH 40 (Surfactant) and PG (Co-surfactant).

  3. Synthesis, characterization and in silico studies of some schiff’s bases derived from amino acidsDownload Article

    E. Mohana Roopa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (257-267)
    • No of Download = 306

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    The project is aimed at the synthesis of some schiff bases derived from some aldehydes with amino acids such as glycine and alanine. This method is applied successfully to the synthesis of six imines from compounds. The structures of these Schiff bases are confirmed by using physical methods, namely, melting point or boiling point, UV and IR spectra. The physicochemical properties and possible biological activities are predicted using i lab 2 and PASS softwares.

  4. A review of newer therapy in dengue feverDownload Article

    Arun Mathew, Venkat Paluri, Venkateswaramurthy N, Sambath kumar R.
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (268-275)
    • No of Download = 382

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    Dengue is a viral disease that at present affects an enormous number of people in over 125 countries and is conscientious for a sizable number of deaths. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures, so various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review explains some of the published studies on this topic. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue.

  5. Coverage and compliance of mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Bidar district, KarnatakaDownload Article

    Rohith M, M.M. Angadi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (276-280)
    • No of Download = 215

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    Background: Lymphatic filariasis is caused by Wucheria brancrofti. The infection is endemic in more than 80 countries, with more than 1.3 billion people at risk and 120 million already infected globally. Mass drug administration (MDA), for control of filariasis was launched by government of India in 1996. Under this programme, all the beneficiaries in the age group of 2 to 60 years (excluding pregnant mothers, people above 60 and having other illness), will be administered. Objectives: To assess the coverage and compliance of MDA in Bidar district. Methodology: The MDA was carried out in the district in the month of January 2015. After visiting the selected cluster (3 rural and 1 urban) the information was collected from the 30 houses in each cluster randomly. Results: Out of 653 population surveyed, 592 (90.7%) had received the tablet and 61 (9.3%) had not received the tablet. Out of 592, 314(53%) had taken full course, 77(13%) had partially taken the drugs and 201 (34%) had not taken the tablets at all. 9(2.3%) had reported minor side effects like vomiting and dizziness. 3 (0.76%) people reported gastro-enteritis and abdominal discomfort, which subsided after taking the treatment. The compliance was only 53%, which is much below the target of 85%. Conclusion: Effective drug delivery strategies such as proper area demarcation, repeat house visits have to be done to improve coverage. Involvement of elected representatives, religious leaders is very much essential to spread knowledge about the programme, co-operation in educating the reluctant families or individuals.

  6. Estimation of bulk drug and their formulations by analytical reagents by various methods. A reviewDownload Article

    Tuba Khan, Mohd Yaser Arafat, Rahila Bader, Dr. Mohd. Ibrahim, Dr. V. Murali Balram, Dr. Anupama Koneru, S. Imam Pasha
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (281-286)
    • No of Download = 567

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    The aim of present work is to find out a simple, specific, and spectrophotometric Methods which were developed for the detection of different pharmaceutical dosage forms using analytical and chemical reagents in bulk drug and their pharmaceutical formulation. The developed methods have been explained with the principle & reaction in detail .The method were ascertained by actual determination of fixed concentration of the drug with in Beer -Lambert range .Hence in present work different reagents like MBTH, PDAB, 2,6-dichloroquinone, Folin ciocalteaus, 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium are enlisted along with their estimated drugs.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of hybrid mannich base-tetraoxane derivatives as potent anti-malarial agentsDownload Article

    Malita Sarma, Dipak Chetia, Khumanthem Deepak Singh, Zartaj Washmin Banu, Chandrajit Dohutia
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (287-293)
    • No of Download = 275

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    In spite of being a promising drug against malaria, artemisinin at present, demands considerable modifications due to increased resistance of malarial parasites towards it. Presence of Mannich base phenol side chain within the tetraoxane scaffold has shown to deliver a new class of hybrid drugs with dual potency against Plasmodium falciparum. Taking this into consideration 5 hybrid chemotypes containing Mannich base as a pharmacophoric group with a tetraoxane core were synthesized and evaluated for anti-malarial activity. Synthesized compounds MS-I and MS-IV showed IC50 values of 0.391 and 0.383 µg/100 µL respectively while rest showed IC50 values of 0.464, 0.433 and 0.762 µg/100 µL respectively. MS-I and MS-IV were subsequently screened against mutant RKL-2 strain yielding IC50 values of 0.807 and 1.619 µg/100 µL respectively.

  8. Development and validation of stability indicating RP-HPLC method for Simultaneous determination of Desloratadine and Montelukast Sodium in pharmaceutical dosage formDownload Article

    Ravi Challa and N.V.S. Naidu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (294-309)
    • No of Download = 379

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    A simple, precise cost effective and stability indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Desloratadine (DES) and Montelukast sodium (MKT) in pharmaceutical formulation. The RP-HPLC was performed on Zodiac C18, (100mmx4.6mm, 5µ particle size) column. Mobile phase consisting of mixed buffer and methanol in the ratio 40:60 v/v. (2.6 gms of potassium hydrogen phosphate and 0.6 gms of dipotasssium hydrogen phosphate in 1000 ml distilled water, pH was adjusted to 6.0±0.1 with dilute orthophosphoric acid) and column temperature was 30oC. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.0 ml/min and the injection volume was 20μl. Detection was performed at 261nm.The Retention time for DES and MKT were 2.460 and 3.129 min respectively. The method was validated and shown to be linear for DES and MKT in 2.5-15.0 μgmL-1 and 5.0-30.0 μgmL-1 respectively. The regression was 0.9997 for DES and 0.9999 for MKT. DES and MKT were highly susceptible to acid (33.18 & 35.49), peroxide conditions (35 & 32.39) and least susceptible to UV (2.22 & 2.52) and basic conditions (2.59 & 3.73). Precision studies showed % RSD values less than 2% for both the drugs in all the selected concentrations. The percentage recoveries of MKT and DES were in the range of 99.40%-99.99%and 99.18%-100.45% respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.084μg/ml, 0.254μg/ml for MKT and 0.081 μg/ml, 0.246μg/ml for DES respectively. The method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.

  9. Development and validation of stability indicating RP-HPLC method for Simultaneous determination of Hydrochlorothiazide and Nebivolol Hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage formDownload Article

    Ravi Challa, K. Rambabu and N.V.S. Naidu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (310-323)
    • No of Download = 276

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    A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been established for determination of Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and Nebivolol hydrochloride (NBL) in combine dosage form under different stress conditions. The drug substances were subjected to stress by hydrolysis (0.1N HCl and 0.5NaOH), photochemical, and UV degradation (254 nm). Both the drugs were degraded under selected experimental conditions. Successful separation of the drugs from the degradation products was achieved on a Hypersil BDS C18, 150x4.6, 5µ column with 50:50 (v/v) Mixed buffer and Methanol in the ratio 50: 50. 2.6 gms of potassium hydrogen phosphate and 0.6gms of dipotasssium hydrogen phosphate were dissolved in 1000 ml distilled water, pH was adjusted 5.5±0.1 with dilute orthophosphoric acid as mobile phase. The method was linear over the concentration range of 6.250-38.750 μg mL-1 (r2 > 0.991), with limits of detection and quantitation (LOD and LOQ) of 0.3061 and 0.9276 μg mL-1, respectively, for HCTZ and 2.500-15.000 μg mL-1 (r2 > 0.991) with LOD and LOQ of 0.489 and 1.4815 μg mL-1, respectively, for NBL. The method was validated for specificity, selectivity, accuracy, and precision. This method was reproducible and selective. As the developed method could effectively separate the drugs from their degradation products, it can be used as stability-indicating.

  10. Formulation optimization and in vitro evaluation for the gastro retentive tablets of LabetololDownload Article

    Sravanthi Todasam and Nagarajan Srinivasan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (324-332)
    • No of Download = 295

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    The controlled gastric retention of solid dosage forms may be achieved by the mechanisms of mucoadhesion, flotation, sedimentation, expansion, modified shape systems, or by the simultaneous administration of pharmacological agent that delay gastric emptying. Based on these approaches, classification of floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) has been described in detail. Floating granules were prepared by using Direct Compression technique. The oral bioavailabilty of Labetolol has been reported to be about 25%. Gastric floating drug delivery is one approach where the gastro intestinal residence time is prolonged because of the floating behavior. In the present study the formulations were prepared by using different proportions of polymer. The prepared formulations were evaluated for different physicochemical characteristics such as thickness and diameter, drug content, weight variation, hardness, friability. The release characteristics of the formulation were studied in in-vitro conditions. The IR spectrum of pure drug and drug-polymer mixture revealed that there was no interaction between polymer and drug. The prepared floating tablet is industrially feasible method. Bulk density and tapped density shown good packability and Carr’s index results shown excellent compressibility. Formulation F16 containing combination of Metalose SR and Manucol was found to release a maximum of 97.2431% at the 12th hour.

  11. Development and validation of iloperidone by UV spectrophotometric methodsDownload Article

    C.Sivakumari, D.Amitha, A.Gopi Reddy, Ramangineyulu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (333-340)
    • No of Download = 271

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    A simple, accurate and economical UV visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for evaluation of Iloperidone drug. The standard and sample solutions were prepared by using distilled water as a solvent. Quantitative determination of the drug was performed at wavelength range 220 nm. The linearity was established over the concentration range of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 μg/ml for Iloperidone with correlation coefficient value of 0.9997. Precision studies showed that % relative standard deviation was within range of acceptable limits. The mean percentage recovery was found to be 98.9%. The proposed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines. has been validated as per ICH guidelines.

  12. Formulation and evaluation of ofloxacin ointment containing natural wound healing agent Curcuma longaDownload Article

    S. Valarmathi, M.Senthil Kumar, J. Irfana begum, K.Monisha, K.Ramya, B. Mohammed kabeer , K. Janaki Raman
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (341-348)
    • No of Download = 474

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    The present investigation was aimed to formulate and evaluate the wound healing ointment. The combination of wound healing agent curcuma longa with ofloxacin is good rational, where curcuma longa produces synergistic wound healing effect with ofloxacin. Formulations of ointments containing 0.5% ofloxacin , 0.5% ofloxacin and 5% curcuma longa, 5% curcuma longa were prepared. To assess the efficacy of formulations viscosity, extrudability, invitro-study (Diffusion study), Stability characteristic were evaluated. The results obtained were encouraging the formulation containing ofloxacin (0.5%) with 5% of curcuma longa was found better than other formulations.

  13. Formulation and evaluation of fluconazole and ichthammol ointmentDownload Article

    S. Valarmathi, M. Senthil Kumar, S. Sathish Kumar, K.P.A. Seahnaas Asmi, J.J. Dhanalakshmi, D.Stellamary
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (349-358)
    • No of Download = 302

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    The fluconazole drug is used for treatment of anti-fungal infections like eczema, itching, pruritis. Reason for this study to formulate the ointment with different ointment bases.The ointment bases having good consistency, better diffusion, anti-fungal and antiseptic properties. Combination of fluconazole and ichthammol is used to treat the infection caused by coryne bacteria. Fluconazole and ichthammol having good anti-fungal and antiseptic property respectively. So it is used to cure the skin infection on the epidermis layer. The prepared formulation is evaluated for assay drug release, uniformity, viscosity, diffusibility, stability, permeability and other physical characteristics. Two formulations, formulation F1 and F2 were prepared with same active ingredients except different bases. Formulation F1 contains white soft paraffin, cetostearyl alcohol, light liquid paraffin and microcrystalline wax. Formulation F1 was found better than formulation F2 in all aspects like viscosity, stability, diffusibility etc.

  14. Formulation and evaluation of gel containing fluconazole as an antifungal agentDownload Article

    S.Valarmathi, M.Senthil Kumar, P.Ashvini, S.Flowerin Sheena, N.Shakila, B.Vinodhini
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (359-367)
    • No of Download = 292

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    Fluconazole is an imidazole derivative used for the treatment of local and synthetic fungal infection. The oral use of fluconazole is not recommended as it has many side effects. The present study was designed to formulate and evaluate different formulae of topical gel containing fluconazole for treatment of fungal infection of skin. The gel was formulated by using carbapol in different concentration (0.5, 1, and 1.5) as gelling agent. Three different formulae (F1, F2, F3) was prepared and characterized physically in term of colour, spreadability, pH and rheological properties (viscosity). Drug-excipients compatibility studies were confirmed by FT-IR. In-vitro diffusion study using phosphate buffer pH 5.5 as medium and permeation study using Modified Franz diffusion cell was performed. The result of in-vitro drug release permeation studies showed that the higher values was from F1 (85% of drug release) when compared to other formulation F2&F3.

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