IJPAR | International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

ISSN: 2320_2831

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  1. Formulation and characterization, of aceclofenac microspheres by ionic crosslinking techniqueDownload Article

    Dillip Kumar Mohapatra, DR M. D. Dhanaraju, S. Selvadurai
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (368-376)
    • No of Download = 314

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    Objective Present investigation describes the preparation of Aceclofenac microspheres by ionic cross linking technique followed by characterization of microspheres to evaluate the effect of polymer concentration and different crosslinking agents on physical properties and drug release profile of microspheres. Methods Aceclofenac Microspheres were prepared with polymer, sodium alginate at various concentrations using ionic cross linking agents Calcium Chloride (CaCl2), Barium Chloride (BaCl2) and Aluminum Sulfide (Al (SO4) 3). The microspheres were developed and the effect of sodium alginate concentration, cross linking agents was evaluated with respect to entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface characteristics and in vitro release behaviors with the incorporation efficiency. The solid microspheres were characterized by sieve analyzer, scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry, and in vitro drug release. Results The infrared spectroscopic study confirmed the absence of any drug polymer interaction. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis revealed that the drug was molecularly dispersed in the alginate microspheres matrices showing rough surface, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy study. The mean particle size and entrapment efficiency and in vitro release profile could be altered significantly by changing various formulation parameters to give a sustained release of drug from the microspheres. Conclusion It can be concluded that the formulation prepared by ionic cross linking method, has potential to deliver Aceclofenac in a controlled manner in a regular fashion over an extended period of time in comparison to all other formulations and can be adopted for a successful oral delivery of Aceclofenac for safe management of hypertension.

  2. Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of gastroretentive microballoons of riboflavinDownload Article

    Mahejabeen Syeda, Shahnaz Shaik
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (377-387)
    • No of Download = 332

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    The present study involves the preparation and evaluation of floating microballoons of riboflavin that has narrow absorption window in the upper part of small intestine. By retaining the dosage form in the stomach and controlling the rate of release prior to reaching the absorption window, free drug can be continuously supplied to its absorption site in the GIT. Microballoons of riboflavin were formulated by emulsion solvent diffusion method employing hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4M) and ethyl cellulose (EC) polymers and characterized for floating behaviour, in-vitro drug release study, surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FT-IR and DSC studies confirmed the absence of interaction among the drug and polymers. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the microballoons were smooth and almost spherical with free flowing characteristics. Optical microscopic studies revealed the average particle size of 147.7±2.54μ.m. The microballoons were found to produce the percentage yield of 76.42±0.35%, drug encapsulation efficiency of 75.92±0.82 and buoyancy of 96.24±0.08% . In-vitro release showed cumulative drug release of 87.28±0.294% at the end of 12 hours and the release data found to be zero order super case II transport.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of almotriptan chewable tabletsDownload Article

    V. Anil kumar, K.L. Deepthi, R. Kalyani, B. Padmasri, D.Prasanth
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (388-399)
    • No of Download = 262

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    In the present work, Almotriptan chewable tablets were prepared. All the tablets were subjected to weight variation, drug content uniformity, lock length, dissolution, drug excipients interaction and short-term stability studies. There was no difference in the position of the absorption bands, hence providing evidence for the absence of any chemical incompatibility between pure drugs with the excipients. The bulk density and tapped density for all formulation (F1 – F9) varied from 0.423 - 0.485 gm/cm3 and 0.501 - 0.593 gm/cm3 respectively. The results of carr’s consolidate index or % compressibility index and hausner’s ratio for the entire formulation (F1 – F9) blend range from 15.5- 19.1 and 1.10-1.28 respectively, shows fair flow properties. All the tablets show similar color, odour, taste and physical appearance. There is no impact of different in their organoleptic properties. By using the different excipient, the hardness values ranged from 3.0-3.5 kg/cm2 for formulations (F1-F9) .The entire tablet passes weight variation test, as the average % weight variation was within the Pharmacopeial limit - 7.5%. It was found to be 149mg - 152 mg. The weight of all the tablets was found to be uniform with less deviation. The concentration of the drug in all the formulations with different polymers was found to be 97.35 – 99.58%. It was within the IP limits.

  4. Formulation and evaluation of darunavir chewable tabletsDownload Article

    B. Padmasri, R.Kalyani, K.L. Deepthi, V.Anil kumar, D.Prasanth
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (400-409)
    • No of Download = 555

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    In the present work, chewable release tablets of Darunavir were prepared by the wet granulation method. All the tablets were subjected to weight variation, drug content uniformity, and hardness, and friability, dissolution, drug excipients interaction and short-term stability studies. Tablets prepared by the wet granulation method were found to be good without any chipping, capping and sticking. The hardness of the prepared tablets was found to be in the range of 4.2 to 6.4 kg/ cm2. The friability values were found to be in the range of 0.63 to 0.81%. Disintegration time was found to be in the range of 1-3min.Formulation F7 showed good results than rest of the 9 formulations in pre and post compression studies. The average weight and drug content of the prepared tablets indicate weight and drug content uniformity within the batches prepared. Formulation F7 (99.266) displayed maximum drug release within 1 hour and also showed good hardness and friability results. IR-spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug–excipients interactions. The optimized formulation follows first order kinetics.

  5. Design and characterization of miconazole nitrate loaded nanosponges containing vaginal gelsDownload Article

    P.Suresh Kumar, N.Hematheerthani J.VijayaRatna and V.Saikishore
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (410-417)
    • No of Download = 634

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    The objective of the present work is to prepare and evaluate vaginal gels incorporating nanosponges of Miconazole nitrate for systemic delivery of the drug after topical application. Hence efforts were made to prepare miconazole nitrate loaded nanosponges containing vaginal gels using polymers like hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), methyl cellulose (MC) and carbopol. The gel formulations were prepared with a view to improve permeability of drug. The prepared gel were evaluated for PH,Viscosity, Spreadability, Extrudability, Mucoadhesive time and Invitro diffusion study. The gel formulations can be graded in the following order with respect to the rates of diffusion of drug from them: (HPMC) > (Carbopol) .> (NaCMC) > (MC) The correlation coefficient values (r) revealed that the diffusion profiles follows zero order kinetics and the mechanism of drug release was governed by peppas model. The diffusion exponent of release profiles (slope) has a value of (n>0.5), which indicates non fickian diffusion. It was found that the micanazole nitrate loaded nanosponges containing gels prepared with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose showed good extrudability, homogeneity, spreadability and required diffusion rate in comparison with other formulations and was selected as suitable candidate to be delivered through vaginal route at controlled rate.

  6. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Diphenyl ether Derivatives as Antitubercular and Antibacterial AgentsDownload Article

    Sari S Nair, Dr.Cinu Thomas A, Anjali T, Vineetha S
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (418-430)
    • No of Download = 181

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    A new series of diphenyl ether derivatives were synthesized from meta phenoxy benzaldehyde and aniline. The synthesized compounds were screened for in-vitro antimycobacterial, antibacterial and cytotoxicity studies. The synthesized compound 2a have shown potential activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain with MIC 12.5. These diphenyl ether derivatives were subjected to docking studies and virtual screening. The receptor specificity of the synthesized compounds were shown from the antibacterial activity study since none of the synthesized compounds showed activity, so it have been proved that newly synthesized compounds were specifically act on the enoyl acyl carrier protein receptor.

  7. Development and validation of spectroscopic methods for simultaneous estimation of combination of antibiotic agentsDownload Article

    Prerana Sanas, Amol Kulkarni
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (431-439)
    • No of Download = 225

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    A simple, sensitive rapid and reproducible UV and method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Cefixime and Pefloxacin in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. For development of UV method for Cefixime and Pefloxacin methanol was used as solvent and detection wavelength were found to be at 289.0 nm and 232.80 nm respectively. The method was found to linear in concentration range 10-35 µg/ml for both drugs the precision and repeatability results showed %RSD less than 2%. The LOD was found to be 0.6445µg/ml and 1.7187 µg/ml for CEF and PEF respectively and LOQ was found to be 1.9531 µg/ml and 5.2083 µg/ml for CEF and PEF respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines.

  8. Preparation of herbo-mineral formulation comprised of Shilajit & AmalkiDownload Article

    Akhilesh Kr. Verma, Neeraj Kumar, L.N. Gupta, Sunil Chaudhary
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (440-444)
    • No of Download = 221

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    Shilajit is a blakish brown colour herbomineral medicine, obtained from high altitude of mountain from India and many part of word. Shilajit is comprised of humic matter that contains 60-80% of fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA). The biological activity of Shilajit is mainly attributed to these humic compounds HA and FA. Shilajit possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimutagenic, antitoxic, antiviral, antitumor and apoptotic properties. These properties make Shilajit useful agents to enhance the quality of life in cancer patients. In this review we have focused on pharmaceutical processes of Shilajit and Amalaki finally preparation of herbomineral medicine to assessed quality of life in cervical cancer patients. Shodhan (purification) of Shilajit were done via three methods i.e. Shilajit treated with Guduchi kasaya (Batch I), Shilajit treated with Triphala kasaya (Batch II) and Shilajit treated with water (Batch III). Yield of Shiajit in Batch I was 37.5 %, Batch II was 50.00 % and Batch III was 29.60 %.

  9. Astashine capsules: an excellent choice to boost muscle resilience.Download Article

    Govind Shukla, Nagalakshmi Yaparthy, Jyothika Vanamali, C.J. Sampath Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (445-454)
    • No of Download = 341

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    Astaxanthin is a strong antioxidant which by reducing oxidative stress will support muscle function. Oxidative stress has harmful effects on muscle health. Clinical studies have shown that astaxanthin increases muscle endurance, lowers lactic acid and prevents muscle atrophy in aging. The effects of astaxanthin on muscle are explained by its ability to protect membranes from oxidation and thereby enhance mitochondrial function and reduces inflammation and muscle damage. This article reviews the current available scientific literature regarding the effect of astaxanthin from the algae Haematoccus pluvialis in Astashine capsules in muscle resilience.

  10. Ethnopharmacological approaches to treat lymphatic filariasisDownload Article

    Saurabh Shrivastava, Bina Gidwani, Anshita Gupta, Chanchal Deep Kaur
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (455-470)
    • No of Download = 276

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    Lymphatic filariasis is one of the oldest and debilitating health problems for the human beings. It is a parasitic disease which is prevalent principally in tropical and subtropical countries. It is a condition with initial clinical manifestations like, presence of high fever with or without rigors. It may be accompanied by itchy irregular erythematous swelling of the skin usually present in legs. This condition emphasis a typical elephant like leg due to swelling therefore it is also known as elephantiasis. Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori are three major causative parasites which are responsible for lymphatic filariasis. The modern synthetic medicines found to be very effective for controlling lymphatic filariasis, but causes lots of side effects. Hence, there is a need to search for effective, non toxic novel herbal drugs with anti filarial activity. The herbal treatment destroys the filarial parasites present within the blood and lymph nodes. Depletion of stoppage and swelling reduction is predominant in the prosperous treatment of lymphatic filariasis. This review provides the information for the researchers to investigate further and to attain lead molecules in the search of novel herbal drugs to treat lymphatic filariasis.

  11. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive microspheres of cimetidineDownload Article

    SK. Arifa Begum, D. Basava Raju
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (471-486)
    • No of Download = 218

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    The intention of the present study is to formulate mucoadhesive microspheres containing cimetidine by employing xanthan gum & gum kondagogu as mucoadhesive agent and by adapting ionotropic gelation technique. Response Surface Composite design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, polymer concentration (X1) and sodium alginate concentration (X2) on dependent variables mucoadhesion time. The best batch exhibited a high drug entrapment efficiency of 97.12% and a swelling index of 96.98%; percentage mucoadhesion after 10 h was 98%. The drug release was also sustained for 12 h. The prepared mucoadhesive microspheres were characterized for various properties like preformulation, flow properties, in vitro mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, entrapment efficiency and surface properties. The external and internal surface morphological characteristics of mucoadhesive microspheres were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The formulation which showed better flow properties, in vitro drug release and entrapment efficiency was selected as optimized formulation i.e., formulation MGK5. The in vitro release profiles from optimized formulations were applied on various release kinetic models of drug and suggested that the drug release from microspheres followed non-fickian diffusion. The optimized formulations MGK5 was subjected to stability studies for six months at 400 ±20C & 75±5%RH as per ICH guidelines and result showed that there were no changes in physical parameters, formulation parameters and in vitro release studies.

  12. Development and validation for the simultaneous quantification of Montelukast and Levocetirizine by UV, RP-HPLC and HPTLC methods in tabletsDownload Article

    N.Ramesh Kumar, V. Vaidhyalingam
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (487-496)
    • No of Download = 297

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    The present study was aim to develop and validate a UV, HPLC and HPTLC methods for simultaneous estimation of montelukast and levocetirizine in tablet dosage form. Linearity was observed for levocetirizine and montelukast in all the methods. Percent recoveries obtained for both the drugs were 99-100%. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2% as per the ICH these methods. The percentage purity thus found is 99.02% and 100.04% for montelukast and levocitirizine. A simple, selective, linear, precise, and accurate UV, HPTLC and RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of montelukast and levocetrizine in its bulk and liquid dosage form. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and ruggedness. The methods were developed successfully it is applied for the analysis of simultaneous estimation of montelukast and levocetirizine in tablet dosage form.

  13. Development and validation of HPTLC stability indicating method for estimation of Azilsartan Medoxomil using Fluorescence modeDownload Article

    Santosh V. Gandhi, Vrushpriya H. Habde
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (497-503)
    • No of Download = 349

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    Azilsartan medoxomil is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used in the management of hypertension. A simple, selective, and sensitive High Performance Thin layer Liquid Chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the determination of Azilsartan medoxomil using fluorescence mode has been developed. The HPTLC separation was achieved on the aluminum backed layer of silica gel 60F254 using Toluene: Methanol (8:2 v/v) as mobile phase. Quantification was achieved using fluorescence mode at 312 nm over the concentration range of 200 to 1000 ng/band with correlation coefficient of 0.991.The recovery study results ranged from 99.33- 99.59%for Azilsartan medoxomil. Retention factor (Rf) was found to be 0.38 ± 0.04respectively. The method is simple and was successfully validated according to ICH guidelines Q2 (R1). The method showed acceptable values for assay, accuracy, precision, robustness, sensitivity and stability.

  14. Design & characterization of timolol maleate Osmotic drug delivery systemDownload Article

    B.Nagarani, A.Sravanthi, M.Santosh Kumar, R.Srikanth
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (504-517)
    • No of Download = 525

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    The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate Push-Pull Osmotically Controlled Drug Delivery system of Timolol Maleate. Push pull osmotic tablets are bilayered tablets consisting of pull layer (drug layer) and push layer (polymer layer) coated with semi permeable membrane containing water leaching pore forming agents. Timolol Maleate is an oral antihypertensive agent which belongs to BCS class II drug with half life of 4 hours. Main objective to formulate this system was to achieve zero order release. The present study was also aimed to develop a system that would reduce the frequency of dosing and thus increases patient compliance. In this study an attempt was made to design formulations by using Stat-Ease design expert 9software. Opadry CA was used as film forming polymer. Sodium chloride was used as osmotic agents. This system was developed in two stages: (a) Formulation of core tablet & (b) coating of tablet core. Core tablets were evaluated for content uniformity, hardness, & weight variation while coated tablets were evaluated for film thickness and In Vitro release study. All the post compression and pre-compression parameters showed within limits. Selected formulation F2 having Polyox N-80 73.5% successfully retarded drug release for 24hrs and drug release follows Zero order kinetic with R2 value of 0.987. The Korsmeyer-Peppas equation showed the R2 value to be 0.918 and n value was 0.639 following Zero Order & Anomalous (Non-Fickian Diffusion).

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