IJPAR | International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

ISSN: 2320_2831

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  1. Review on substituted 1, 3, 4 thiadiazole compoundsDownload Article

    Manimaran T, Anand Raj M, Jishala MI, Gopalasatheeskumar K
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (222-231)
    • No of Download = 307

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    The review was carried out to discuss in detail about the substituted 1,3, 4 thiadiazole compounds. heterocyclic compounds such as thiazoles, thiadiazoles, indoles, oxadiazoles, benzisoxazoles and pyrroles have been successfully used as Antibacterial, Anticancer, Antipyretic, Schistosomicidal, Hypoglycemic, Antihypertensive, Anti-tubercular, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-HIV agents. All large number of organo-sulfur compounds occur in living and non-living object. They belong to open chain, alicyclic, aromatic and heterocyclic types of compounds containing sulfur atoms or atoms as a part of chain/ring or both in the structure. In this review briefly study about the Structure and reactivity of 1,3,4-thiadiazoles, Characteristic reactions, Characteristic features of 1,3,4-thiadiazole, Methods of synthesis, biological interest. And in this review can be concluded that many researches had investigated on substituted thiodiazole compounds having the biological activities.

  2. Astashine silver capsules: an excellent choice to boost immune systemDownload Article

    Govind Shukla, Nagalakshmi Yaparthy, NehaGiri, D.Sruthi Rao, G.Santosh C.J. Sampath Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (232-237)
    • No of Download = 326

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    Astaxanthinis a naturally occurring carotenoid which is derived from the microalgaeHaematococcuspluvialis being the most powerful antioxidant known to science, it alsohas potent anti-inflammatory properties. Natural astaxanthin´s distinct advantage in comparison toother antioxidants is its ability to span the entire lipidbilayer of the cell membrane, thus providing superiorprotection from the inside out. Natural astaxanthinhas a strong ability to both balance and strengthenthe immune system.. L-carnitine in Astashine silver increases the proliferative responses of human lymphocyte following mitogenic stimulation and increase polymorph nuclear chemotaxis. Furthermore, L-carnitine, even at minimal concentrations, neutralizes the lipid induced immunosuppression. This article reviews the current available scientific literature regarding the effect of astaxanthin from the algae Haematoccuspluvialis & L-Carnitine in Astashine silver as a natural immune booster.

  3. Analytical method development and validation of carvedilol in bulk and tablet dosage form by using uv spectroscopic method as per ich guidelinesDownload Article

    V.Shirisha, V. Sravani Patel, J.Suresh , G.Koteshwar Rao M.Alagar raja. K. Rajeswar Dutt
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (238-244)
    • No of Download = 174

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    A simple, sensitive, highly accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of carvedilol in bulk and pharmaceutical tablet dosage form as per ICH Guideliness. The adequate drug solubility and maximum assay sensitivity was found in methanol. The absorbance of carvedilol was measured at 241 nm in the wavelength range of 200‐400 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 10-60 μg/mL, in the linearity study regression equation was found to be y = 0.183X-0.009& correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999. This method was Rugged and Robust in different testing criteria, LOD and LOQ was found to be 0.33 μg / ml & 1 μg / ml respectively. Accuracy study was done in 3 different concentration levels 50, 100, 150% & % recovery of the method was found to be 101.0%, 100.5%, 100.4% respectively in 3 different levels & mean recovery was 100.6%, so method was accurate. Results of all validation parameter were within the limit as per ICH guideline. Results of percentage recovery shows that the method was not affected by the presence of common excipients. The proposed method has been successfully used for the analysis of the drug in pure and its tablet dosage forms. Easily and the method was precise accurate to perform in future

  4. Formulation and evaluation of oral dispersible tablets of aripiprazoleDownload Article

    A.Madhusudhan Reddy, P.Srinivasababu, Y. Sai Tejaswi, I.V.Sainadh, S.Sai Madhuri, V. Sowmya, V.Sowmya, T.Joseph
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (245-253)
    • No of Download = 143

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    An orally disintegrating tablet or orally dissolving tablet (ODT) is a drug dosage form available for a limited range of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications. ODTs differ from traditional tablets in that they are designed to be dissolved on the tongue rather than swallowed whole. The ODT serves as an alternative dosage form for patients who experience dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) or for where compliance is a known issue and therefore an easier dosage form to take ensures that medication is taken. Common among all age groups, dysphagia is observed in about 35% of the general population, as well as up to 60% of the elderly institutionalized population and 18-22% of all patients in long-term care facilities ODTs also have a faster onset of effects than tablets or capsules, and have the convenience of a tablet that can be taken without water. During the last decade, ODTs have become available in a variety of therapeutic markets, both OTC and by prescription. Oro-dispersible tablet refers to tablet which easily. Our objective is to formulate and evaluate the oro-dispersible tablets an anti-psychotic drug. The formulation is optimized by incorporating varying composition of polymers such as Manitol, Micro crystalline cellulose and Povidone. All the excipients are tested for compatibility with model drug. The pre-formulation parameters such as Tapped density, Bulk density, Compressibility index, Hausner’s ratio and Angle of repose were analyzed. The Thickness, Hardness, Friability, Disintegration time, Weight variation and Content uniformity was evaluated for core tablets. The In-vitro drug release was performed by using dissolution apparatus-II (USP paddle type) by maintaining temperature of 37oC ± 5oC. Based on the dissolution result B6 formulation (containing cross povidone) was selected as best formulation. The drug release of B6 follows zero-order. The total amount of drug released from the B6 is the maximum and it reached to about 85.39%

  5. Analytical method development and validation of gabapentin in bulk and tablet dosage form by using UV spectroscopic methodDownload Article

    V.Sowmya, V. Shirisha, B.Sairaju, M.Sushma, Ch.Nagamani, A.Thanga Thirupathi, M.Alagar Raja & K.Rajeswar Dutt
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (254-260)
    • No of Download = 186

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    A simple, accurate, precise and economic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Gabapentin in their bulk powder and pharmaceutical dosage form. Gabapentin showed maximum absorbance at 216 nm with Methanol as solvent. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range 10-60 μg/ml with regression coefficient of 0.999. The concentration of active component were then determined from the calibration curve obtained by measuring the amplitude at 216 nm for gabapentin. Accuracy and precision of the developed methods have been tested in addition recovery studies have been carried out in order to confirm their accuracy. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy (99.2-101.5%w/w) and specificity. This method is simple, precise, accurate, sensitive and reproducible and can be used for the routine quality control testing of the marketed formulations.

  6. Evaluation of anti-cancer activity on N-Substituted TetrahydrocarbazolesDownload Article

    Subrahmanyam Lanka, Vaikuntarao Lakinani, Siva Rama Rao Kakani
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (261-273)
    • No of Download = 158

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    A New series of N-Substituted Tetrahydrocabazole derivatives are prepared by cyclohexanone (1) treated with substituted phenyl hydrazine’s (2a, 2b) refluxed at 60°C for 10 mins undergoes cyclisation with the loss of ammonia, in presence of reagents like glacial acetic acid leads the formation of substituted tetrahydrocabazole (3a, 3b), this upon treating with 10% sodium hydroxide and substituted 4amino-benzoyl chlorides (4a, 4b) gives (4aminobenzoyl) 1, 2, 3, 4 tetrahydro carbazole derivatives. (5a, 5b). The structures of new derivatives should be purified by the different chromatographic techniques and assigned on the basis of 1H NMR, IR, and Mass spectral data. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in-vitro anti-cancer activity.

  7. Efficient and economic spectroscopic method for determination and validation of atenololDownload Article

    Sumita Singh, Kunal Arora
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (274-280)
    • No of Download = 183

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    The aim of this work was focused on to determine and validate an efficient, economic, accurate, simple spectroscopic method for the determination of atenolol in bulk drugs. The spectroscopic method was performed using a double beam UV-visible spectrophotometer (1700, Pharmaspace, Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan). Dilutions of different concentration were prepared using solvents of different pH (2.5, 4.5, 6.5) and absorbance of the solution was determined. Validation was performed by maximum absorbance for each buffer and λmax was 224.30, 224.50 and 225.00 for pH 2.5, 4.5, and 6.5 respectively. Accuracy, interday and intraday precision, recovery and linearity studies were performed. Limit of detection (0.133, 0.133 and 0.2938 for pH 2.5, 4.5 and 6.5 respectively), and limit of quantification (0.404, 0.404 and 0.8905 for pH 2.5, 4.5, and 6.5 respectively). Hence, this method can be recommended for the estimation and validation of atenolol in bulk drugs and in pharmaceutical dosage form.

  8. Gemcitabine loaded vesicular drug delivery system for targetingDownload Article

    Arjun Goje, Shailesh Sharma, R. C. Doijad
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (281-288)
    • No of Download = 215

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    Gemcitabine is a potent anticancer drug approved for the treatment of pancreatic, non-small-cell lung, breast, and ovarian cancers. Gemcitabine is a highly reactive molecule and binds extensively to plasma and tissue proteins leading to a fast inactivation of a large part of the administered dose. Thus, the clinical use of Gemcitabine faces two major problems, serious dose-limiting toxicities and rapid inactivation of the drug in the circulation. Both problems could possibly be prevented by shielding of the drug from the extracellular environment by means of a lipid coating. In the present investigation Gemcitabine loaded long circulating liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method. By using different concentrations of PEGylated phospholipids, from the preliminary in vivo work, it was observed that stealth liposome’s formulation was better than free Gemcitabine. Stealth liposome’s formulation decreased the volume of solid tumor as well as ascites volume, decreased average body weight and increased the life span. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies were carried out in lymphoma bearing mice and the drug was detected in plasma even after 24 hours. This reveals that the stealth liposome’s formulation had improved stability in the biological fluids. Tissue distribution studies done in the drug loaded long circulating liposome’s showed preferential drug targeting to liver followed by spleen, lungs, and kidneys. Higher concentration of drug was targeted to the organs after administering the dose in the form of long circulating liposomes except in the heart. Drug levels in the heart are closely related to the inherent cardiac toxicity of Gemcitabine. Therefore using liposomal Gemcitabine formulation could reduce the cardiac toxicity of Gemcitabine.

  9. Comparison of analytical parameter of genetically transformed hairy roots of withania somnifera with normal rootsDownload Article

    Rupali Gawande, Parag Kale, Shital Dange, Shivakumar Shete, Dr.A.G.Namdeo, Dr.S.A.Sreenivas
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (289-295)
    • No of Download = 146

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    Withania somnifera, known as Ashwagandha, widely considered as Indian Ginseng, is a plant of repute in Indian system of traditional medicine. The present study was aimed to compare high performance thin layer chromatography(HPTLC) profile of methanol extract of hairy roots of Withania somnifera with normal roots extracts purchased from different places. The normal roots extracts were obtained from different places like Tulsi Amrit, Indore; Natural Remedies, Bangalore; Ansar Industries, Surat; Amsar Private Limited, Indore; Prashant Pharmaceuticals, Rajpipla. Transgenic hairy roots were induced in W. somnifera by infecting leaf explants with two wild type strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834 and MTCC 4364 using MS media. Chromatographic method was used for separation of withanolide-D from extracts of roots. The W. somnifera hairy roots extract and normal root extracts purchased from different places and standard Withanolide-D sample were used in HPTLC using Solvent system: Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (5:5:1) [V]. HPTLC profiling of extracts confirm about presence of Withanolide-D.HPTLC fingureprint profile scanned at 530nm for methanolic extract revealed with Rf value in range of 0.51 to 0.55. The hairy root extract of Withania somnifera showed almost similar rf (0.53) value and similar peak area (5934.27) when compared with the standard Withanolide-D. The HPTLC method for routine quality control and comparison of present species can be carried out by using method for extracts of plant which serve in qualitative, quantitative and was appropriate for standardization of extracts.

  10. Risks and oppurtunities in development of new drug & question based review of regulatory complianceDownload Article

    R.Suthakaran, R.Parthibarajan , R.Kumanan, Syed.Ghouse, K.Vanaja
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (296-304)
    • No of Download = 146

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    Pharmaceutical development is a costly, time exhausting and uncertain process that takes years to accomplish. In many instances, patent protection expires before a new drug is approved for marketing. Most pharmaceutical firms in the United States and European Union (EU) depend on the exclusivity rights allotted under the U.S. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), and the corresponding EU authorities to recover their considerable investment in the drug research and marketing approval process. Hence, pharmaceutical companies must understand and use the different forms of non-patent exclusivity in both the U.S. and EU in order to win in the global marketplace. Pharmaceutical firms generally obtain patents on their products long before their product candidates are ready to enter market. Since it can take up to 12 years for a firm to obtain market approval, if any, patent protection left on the product at the time of commercializing. To provide pharmaceutical companies with a chance to recuperate their investment in drug research and development and to induce continuing innovation, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) have enforced numerous provisions to increase the period during which companies can market their drugs free of generic market competition.

  11. Drug policies, guidelines, acts and regulations in republic of South AfricaDownload Article

    R.Suthakaran, R.Parthibarajan , R.Kumanan , Syed.Ghouse, M. Vineela Bhargavi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (305-314)
    • No of Download = 153

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    A drug policy is the policy, usually of a government, regarding the control and regulation of drugs considered dangerous, particularly those which are addictive. Governments try to combat drug addiction with policies which address both the demand and supply of drugs, as well as policies which can mitigate the harms of drug abuse, and for medical treatment. Demand reduction measures include prohibition, fines for drug offenses, incarceration for persons convicted for drug offenses, treatment (such as voluntary rehabilitation, coercive care, or supply on medical prescription for drug abusers), awareness campaigns, community social services, and support for families. Over the last fifty years, South Africa has developed a medicines regulatory authority with internationally recognized standing. The Medicines Control Council applies standards laid down by the Medicines and Related Substances Act, (Act 101 of 1965) which governs the manufacture, distribution, sale, and marketing of medicines. The prescribing and dispensing of medicines is controlled through the determination of schedules for various medicines and substances.

  12. Physico-chemical analysis of kanakalinga karpurathy mezhugu – A Siddha herbo mineral compoundDownload Article

    V. Elango, J.Jeya venkatesh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (315-326)
    • No of Download = 132

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    The present study is aimed at the characterization of the physico-chemical traits of the traditional Indian Siddha medicine, Kanakalinga karpurathy mezhugu. FT-IR spectroscopy has been used to study the presence of organic substance compound and complexes in the sample. Proton NMR studies help to characterize the structure of the functional groups in the sample. The study highlights the appropriate application of modern scientific methods for developing new insights into metal based siddha drugs.

  13. A novel approach on microencapsulation in drug delivery system for cancer diagnosisDownload Article

    Surabhi Mandal, Sourav Mohanto, Shubhrajit Mantry, Sudip Das, Shreyasi Datta, Moumita Ghosh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (327-334)
    • No of Download = 372

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    The main objective of this article was to discuss on microencapsulation in drug delivery system for cancer diagnosis. Microencapsulation is a process by which solids, liquids or even gases may be enclosed in microscopic particles formation of thin coatings of wall material around the substances. To obtain maximum therapeutic efficacy, it becomes necessary to deliver the agent to the target tissue in the optimal amount in the right period of time there by causing little toxicity and minimal side effects. The reasons for microencapsulation are countless. It is mainly used to increase the stability and life of the product being encapsulated, facilitate the manipulation of the product and control its liberation in an adequate time and space. In some cases, the core must be isolated from its surroundings, as in isolating vitamins from the deteriorating effects of oxygen, retarding evaporation of a volatile core, improving the handling properties of a sticky material, or isolating a reactive core from chemical attack. In other cases, the objective is not to isolate the core completely but to control the rate at which it leaves the microcapsule, as in the controlled release of drugs or pesticides. For over a half a century now, microencapsulation and encapsulated products have played a very important role in numerous industries like agriculture, chemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and the food industry.

  14. Antihyperglycemic effect of short term resveratrol supplementation in type II diabetes patientsDownload Article

    Mrs. Ganta Radhika Reddy, S. Puspanjali, A. Raja Rajeshwari, M. Ramya Kumari, B. Shravya, M. Sowjanya
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (335-343)
    • No of Download = 147

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    To study the effectiveness of resveratrol in decreasing blood glucose in the presence of standard antidiabetic therapy in subjects with type 2 diabetes. There was 1 subject dropout from each group in between the trail. At the end of the trail, there were 20 and 20 subjects in control and intervention group, respectively. There were trends towards a decrease, but no notable changes were noticed in triglycerides, cholesterol, and LDL levels with resveratrol supplementation, while a notable increase in LDL levels was noticed in the control group. Metformin, glibenclamide, and insulin are all known to have favorable or no effect on the lipid profiles therefore, other independent factors may have given to the noticed increase in the control group. Subgroup analyses presented that resveratrol may have an added effect when used in union with glibenclamide and metformin. This is a pilot study which study the antidiabetic effects of resveratrol over the short term, and only one dose of resveratrol was tested. There was no followup to check the metabolic parameters of the patients after the resveratrol wash-out period. The study lacks the enquiring of cellular mechanisms underlying the antidiabetic effects of resveratrol. Lage no.of toxicological screening was not done on subjects to confirm the well being of resveratrol administration, and the safety of administering 1 g dose of resveratrol over the long term has not been established. The present trail bear the strong antidiabetic effect of resveratrol documented in numerous animal studies, as well as the effects evaluated in the human studies. It also bears the case for resveratrol supplementation over a short term. Nevertheless, well-designed clinical trials with resveratrol supplementation in a larger T2DM population and over a longer duration are required to recommend the use of resveratrol independently or as an adjunct in diabetic population.

  15. An investigantional clinical evaluation of efficacy of milnacipran compared with sodium oxybate in patients suffering with fibromyalgiaDownload Article

    M.A.Rahman
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (344-353)
    • No of Download = 165

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    Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue, sleep, memory and mood issues. Although fibromyalgia is often considered an arthritis-related condition, it is not truly a form of arthritis (a disease of the joints) because it does not cause inflammation or damage to the joints, muscles, or other tissues. The aim of the study is to find the efficacy of the investigational product compared with sodium oxybate in patients suffering with fibromyalgia. The objective of the study is to study the quality of life of patients suffering with fibromyalgia to observe the therapeutic efficacy of the drug, and compare with the reference drug to record the adverse events if reported to present the thesis which increase and deepen knowledge of the life situation of subjects suffering with fibromyalgia. Disturbed sleep has a major impact on quality of life and is often a common symptom of many other chronic conditions, such as chronic pain and mood disorders. The SF-36 is a multi-purpose, short-form health survey with only 36 questions. It yields an 8-scale profile of functional health and well-being scores as well as psychometrically-based physical and mental health summary measures and a preference-based health utility index. Accordingly, the SF-36 has proven useful in surveys of general and specific populations, comparing the relative burden of diseases, and in differentiating the health benefits produced by a wide range of different treatments. The improvements reflected in Version 2.0 of the SF-36; psychometric studies of assumptions underlying scale construction and scoring; how they have been translated in more than 50 countries as part of the International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project; and studies of reliability and validity. Milnacipran 100mg once daily has a predominantly analgesic effect as evidenced by the significant clinical benefits. Higher dose was associated with higher pain reduction. The results from the study show that milnacipran led to statistically significant improvements in pain and other multiple symptoms of FM.

  16. Formulation and evaluation of diclofenac microspheres for sustained drug deliveryDownload Article

    Dr. V. Uma maheshwar rao, Mounika, Venkatesh, Sowmya, Ooha, Bhagya laxshmi, Milind kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (354-362)
    • No of Download = 97

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    In the present work, Diclofenac sodium microspheres using Sodium alginate along with Ethylcellulose, Eudragit and HPMC as copolymers were formulated to deliver Diclofenac sodium via oral route. Diclofenac sodium microspheres were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique by using different polymers. The prepared diclofenac microspheres were different evaluation parameters were examined for particle size, drug entrapment efficiency and in viro drug release studies. Diclofenac sodium microspheres drug release mechanism showed that the drug release from the formulations followed zero order kinetics with higuchis model of drug release

  17. Stress degradation studies and development of validated stability indicating assay method by RP-HPLC for estimation of Apixaban in presence of degradation products as per ICH guidelinesDownload Article

    M.Madan Mohan Reddy, D.Gowri Sankar, JVLN Seshagiri Rao
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (363-384)
    • No of Download = 206

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    A simple, selective, reproducible, economic, stability indicating method has been developed and validated as per ICH guidelines for the estimation of Apixaban (APB) both in bulk drug and in solid dosage forms in the presence of degradation products. Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on a Inertsil ODS (4.6 x 150mm, 5m) with mobile phase Octo sulphonic acid adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid to pH 3.0 with 300 ml (30%) and 700 ml of Acetonitrile HPLC (70%).at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Detection was performed at 226 nm and a sharp peak was obtained for APB at a retention time of 2.235 minutes. Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed there was a good linear relationship between response and concentration in the range 10-50 ppm; the regression coefficient was 0.9997 and the Limit of detection (LOD) was 0.33 μg/mL with S/N ratio of 2.99 and limits of quantification (LOQ) was 30 μg/mL with S/N ratio of 9.97 respectively. In order to determine whether the analytical method and assay were stability-indicating, APB was stressed under various conditions to conduct forced degradation studies. Stability indicating forced degradation established studies showed results that there is no interference of any degraded products and it did not interfere with excepients in the formulation. The detection of APB and the performed assay is thus specific stability- indicating. The wide linearity range, sensitivity, accuracy, short retention time, and simple mobile phase imply the method is suitable for routine quantification of APB with high precision and accuracy.

  18. Derivative spectrophotometric methods for determination of dronedarone in pharmaceutical formulationDownload Article

    Ravikumar Vejendla, Male Mahendar, Nancharla Srinath, Gongalla Dilipkumar, T.Naveen Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (385-395)
    • No of Download = 126

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    The objective of this study is to develop a highly, sensitive, derivative spectrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of Dronedarone hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations. The method carried out by using methanol (solvent) ,the optimum results obtained in the measuring wavelength range 240-310nm.Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 3.0-20µg/ml. Calibration graphs constructed at their wavelengths of determination were linear in the concentration range of Dronedarone using 3-20 μg.mL-1 (r² = 0.9940, r² = 0.9980, r² = 0.9968 and r² = 0.9975 ) for zero order, first order, second order and third order derivative spectrophotometric method. All the proposed methods have been extensively validated as per ICH guidelines. There was no significant difference between the performance of the proposed methods regarding the mean values and standard deviations. These methods were successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulations because no interferences from tablet excipients were found. The proposed methods were found to be simple, sensitive, accurate, precise, rapid and economical for the routine quality control application of Dronedarone in pharmaceutical formulations.

  19. Comparision study between convenstional method and mircrowave irradiation method to synthesize oxadiazole derivativesDownload Article

    K.Rama Devi, K.S.K. Rao Patnaik, D.Ashok, Raju Bathula, Satla Shobha Rani, B.Vasudha, Swathi Gopagoni
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (396-404)
    • No of Download = 78

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    The survey of literature reveals that 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antimitotic, analgesic, antilieshmanial, antimycobacterial, antiinflamatory, antiinsecticidal, antitubercular and anti-HIV. Oxadiazole derivatives found to possess certain specific pharmacological activities. By taking the view in the mind we are prepared some oxadiazole derivatives by conventional and microwave irradiation method. In this work we compared the conventional and microwave irradiation methods.

  20. New analytical method for the quantitative analysis of ornidazole in bulk as well as various dosage forms by hydrotropic solubilisation techniqueDownload Article

    Dr. K. Rajeswar Dutt1, K.N.V.Rao, Juveria Tasleem, M.Uma Devi, G.Raju
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (405-412)
    • No of Download = 152

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    A thorough literature survey of the various analytical methods for the quantitative estimation of Ornidazole in both bulk drug and dosage forms has revealed that very few analytical methods are available utilizing the hydrotropic solubilization technique to date. The present research paper is a description of a new analytical method developed using the principle of Hydrotropy employing very easily available chemical namely 1M Sodium benzoate solution. The method has been validated as per ICH guidelines and found to conform to ICH guidelines. In the present investigation the use of organic solvent has been avoided due to their high cost, volatility and toxicity , making the method environmental friendly. The findings revealed that the method is new, simple, safe, environmental friendly, accurate, precise, reproducible and cost-effective. It can be successfully employed as a routine analytical procedure for the analysis of Ornidazole tablets. Hence the authors suggest that this analytical method can be adopted in the Pharmaceutical industry for the analysis of Ornidazole in bulk and various dosage forms. . Ornidazole shows its maximum absorbance at 304 nm and Beer’s law was obeyed in concentration range of 2-5 µg/ml in presence of 1M Sodium benzoate and Molar absorptivity was computed as 0.0065934×103 mole-1cm-1. Sandell’s sensitivity was established as 0.0167 µg/cm2/0.001 abs.unit. Optimum photometric range was established from the Ringbom’s plot. The statistical analytical parameters namely Standard deviation and Correlation coefficient were computed and found to be 1.581, 0.996.

  21. Simple Isolation and characterization of P-coumaric acid from Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers)Download Article

    A.Viswanath, A.Lakshamana Rao, P.Srinivasa Babu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (413-418)
    • No of Download = 97

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    P-coumaric acid is a non-flavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of p-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by Ultraviolet, Mass and H1 NMR spectral analysis. Mass spectral data shows molecular ion peak of m/z=164.2. A simple method of isolation was reported in this study for identification of P-coumaric acid as a potent antioxidant and anticancer agent prevailed in different commonly available plant species.

  22. Optimization of natural and synthetic suspending agents present in diclofenac suspensionDownload Article

    S.Valarmathi, M. SenthilKumar, E.Padmavathy, V.Haritha, P.Manjula, R.Nivedha, S.Tharani
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (419-422)
    • No of Download = 347

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    Suspensions are coarse dispersions defined as a biphasic liquid dosage form of medicaments in which insoluble solid particles are suspended uniformly in a liquid. The size of the insoluble solid particles in liquid phase may exceed 0.1µm.Dispersed phase is also known as internal phase and continuous phase is also known as external phase. Present research work focuses on effect of suspending agents in diclofenac suspension. Both natural and synthetic suspending agents are used. The natural suspending agent is gelatin and synthetic suspending agent is carbopol. Different concentrations of gelatin (2%, 3%, and 4%) and carbopol ((2%, 3%, and 4%) was prepared. Six formulations with formulation code of F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, and F6 was formulated. The prepared suspensions are evaluated for viscosity,pH, sedimentation volume, degree of flocculation, particle size etc.

  23. A LC-MS compatible RP-HPLC method for the determination of ticagrelor in bulkDownload Article

    A.K.M.Pawar, U. Harini
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (423-430)
    • No of Download = 176

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    A simple, rapid, accurate and precise LC-MS Compatible RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Ticagrelor in bulk. Separation of the drug was achieved on Unisol C18 column (100 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μ) as stationary phase with mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer pH 4.5 and acetonitrile in the ratio of 40: 60 V/V. The method showed a good linear response in the concentration range of 10-50 μg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.99. The flow rate was maintained at 1.0 mL/min and effluents were monitored at 250 nm. The retention time was 3.88 min. The method was statistically validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, ruggedness, robustness, solution stability, selectivity. The results obtained in the study were within the limits of ICH guidelines and hence this method can be used for the determination of Ticagrelor in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  24. Role of regulatory affairs for new drug approval procedure in IndiaDownload Article

    T. Anusha, Dr. M.V. Nagabhushanam
    • Article Type: Review Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (431-441)
    • No of Download = 173

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    Regulatory affairs is a comparatively new profession which developed from the desire of governments to protect public health by controlling the safety and efficacy of products in areas including pharmaceuticals, veterinary medicines, medical devices, pesticides, agrochemicals, cosmetics and complementary medicines. Regulatory affairs (RA) professionals play critical roles in a pharmaceutical industry because it is concern about the healthcare product lifecycle, it provide strategic, tactical and operational direction and support for working within regulations to expedite the development and delivery of safe and effective healthcare products to individuals around the world. The role of regulatory affairs is to develop and execute a regulatory strategy to ensure that the collective efforts of the drug development team results in a product that is approvable by global regulators but is also differentiated from the competition in some way and also is to ensure that the company’s activities, from non-clinical research through to advertising and promotion, are conducted in accordance with the regulations and guidelines established by regulatory authorities

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