IJPAR | International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

ISSN: 2320_2831

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  1. Chemometric assisted RP-HPLC quantitative estimation and validation of hydrochlorothiazide and triamterene in tablet dosage formDownload Article

    P. Hema, P. Chandra Kiran, B. Amaleswara Rao, A. Shanta Kumari
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (442-448)
    • No of Download = 149

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    A new chemometric assisted by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detection was implemented for the simultaneous determination of Hydrochlorothiazide and Triamterene in tablet dosage form. Two chemometric calibration techniques, principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least square analysis (PLS) were applied to the peak area at 276 nm of PDA detector responses. The method was carried out on a Luna C18, 250mm x 4.6mm, 5µm, column with a mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile and Buffer in the ratio of (25 :75v/v) and flow rate of 1.0 ml/ min. The detection was carried out at 272 nm. The retention time for Hydrochlorothiazide and Triamterene were found to be 4.1and 6.2min respectively. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines for specificity, LOD, LOQ, precision, accuracy, linearity and robustness. The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with %RSD less than 2. So the proposed method was found to be simple, specific, precise, accurate and linear. The ‘UNSCRAMBLER -X(camo)’ software was used for the numerical calculations. All of the two-chemometric analysis methods in this study can be satisfactorily applied for the quantitative analysis of Hydrochlorothiazide and Triamterene in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form.

  2. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of methyldopa and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical dosage form by AUC and first order derivative methodDownload Article

    V.B Bharkad, H.N Khan, A. G Mangulkar, MD Zameeruddin, S.V. Jadhav, Prakash Katakam
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (449-456)
    • No of Download = 127

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    A New, Simple, Accurate And Sensitive UV-Spectrophotometric Method has been developed for simultaneous determination of Methyldopa And Hydrochlorothiazide(HCTZ) in bulk And combined dosage form .Method A is AUC method, which involved measurement of area between 276-286nm and 266-276nm for the estimation of MD and HCTZ respectively. Method B Applied first order derivative Spectrophotometry, which involved measuring the absorbance values at 271.40nm and 251.20nm of first derivative spectrum. Beer’s law obeyed in concentration range of 10-60µg/ml and 2-14µg/ml for MD & HCTZ respectively by both Methods. Results of analysis were statistically reported & were found to be satisfactory.

  3. Method development and forced degradation studies of carvedilol by RP-HPLCDownload Article

    Dr.V.Uma Maheshwar Rao, G.Haritha, T.Krishnaiah, Thalluri Gouri Saikiran, T.Abhilash Reddy, U.V. Sai Nikhil, Veerabomma Haritha Sree, Veeram Sri Durga Reddy
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (457-468)
    • No of Download = 116

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    A simple, precise, rapid, accurate, selective and economic high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the estimation of Carvedilol in tablet dosage form. The method development can be achieved by Waters C18, 5m, 25cmx4.6mm i.d. column was used for the estimation of Carvedilol using Acetonitrile and Phosphate buffer and pH-6.00 can be adjusted with orthophosphoric acid as a mobile phase in the ratio of 60:40 v/v, at ambient temperature and the detector was set at wavelength 242nm.The method was validated for accuracy, precision, robustness and recovery studies. The recovery of the drug was found to be within the limits, relative standard deviation was found to be less than 2% for precession studies. The proposed method for quantitative estimation of Carvedilol was proved by method validation in accordance with the ICH guidelines. Carvedilol is subjected to stress conditions of acid, base, oxidation, and thermal and photolysis. Significant degradation is observed in acid and base stress conditions. The developed method can be successfully applied in the routine analysis of commercial pharmaceutical dosage forms. Degradation pathway for Carvedilol is established as per ICH recommendations by validated and stability-indicating reverse phase liquid chromatographic method.

  4. RP-HPLC method development and stability studies of nevirapine in pharmaceutical dosage formDownload Article

    Dr.V.Uma Maheshwar Rao, B.Swapna, P.Manisha, Palawar Dinesh Kumar, Puri Dinesh, Pola Madhuri, Priyanka Sharma, Priya Sharma
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (469-480)
    • No of Download = 106

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    A selective, specific and sensitive stability-indicating Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC) was developed and validated for the estimation of Nevirapine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was performed on HPLC WATERS equipped with Isocratic with UV-Visible Detector using Develosil ODS HG-5 RP C18 column (15cm × 4.6 mm, 5μm) and Mobile phase used is a mixture of Acetate Buffer (pH=3.9): Acetonitrile (45:55) with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection wavelength was 246nm and temperature was Ambient. The percentage relative standard deviation in precision and accuracy studies was found to be less than 2%. The proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. Nevirapine was subjected to stress conditions of degradation in aqueous solutions including acidic, alkaline, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation and it was found that the drug is highly resistant towards all degradations. The developed method was validated with regard to linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity and robustness and the method was found to be precise, accurate, linear and specific. As the proposed HPLC method achieved satisfactory resolution between Nevirapine and its degradation products.

  5. A study to evaluate the correlation between serum uric acid and triglyceride level and its association with body mass index in type 2 diabetic patientsDownload Article

    Mathew George, Lincy Joseph, Rani Manju, Bincy Joseph
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (481-490)
    • No of Download = 68

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    Uric acid is a novel risk factor for diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and a major public health problem around the world. Hyperurecemia is commonly associated with traditional risk factors like hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and central obesity. Patients with type2 diabetes, increased level of uric acid may be an early sign of diabetic kidney disease. As there are only few studies conducted regarding the correlation between serum uric acid and triglyceride level and its association with body mass index in type2 diabetes patients, the present study is undertaken Among the 80 diabetic enrolled patients the study showed that, as the p-value <0.01 , there exist a correlation between hyperurecemia and hypertriglyceridemia which is a prominent factor for development of cardiovascular and renal complications. These association had a close link with their BMI. That is, as the BMI increases the chance for development of hyperurecemia and hypertriglyceridemia is very high in overweight, class 1,2,3 obese patients .The study also give an evidence for hypourecemic effect of metformin and other hypoglycemic medications. Thus the study can be concluded that by stating that a restriction over BMI, uric acid and triglyceride level may reduce the percentage for the development of diabetic complications

  6. Review on Shadbindu Ghritha –a Sneha KalpanaDownload Article

    Dr.Nanda, Dr.M.S.Doddamani
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (491-494)
    • No of Download = 56

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    Ghritas are preparations in which ghee is boiled with prescribed kashaya(decoction) and kalka of drugs according to the formula. This process ensures absorption of the active therapeutic principles of the ingredients used. Generally the proportion is one part of Kalka, four parts of ghritha, sixteen parts of dravadravya .Shadbindu ghritha is one of the Snehakalpana, two different references are available in classics in vangasenasamhitha and yogaratnakara.It contains ingredients like Bhringaraja (Eclipta alba),Yashtimadhu(Glycyrrhizaglabra),Kushta(saussurealappa),Lavanga (syziumaromaticum),Shunti (zingiberofficinale),Vidanga (Embliaribes) is replaced by kushta and vice versa.

  7. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Ananas cosmosus fruit peel by HRBC membrane stabilizationDownload Article

    Y. Niharika
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (495-500)
    • No of Download = 72

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    The aim of the study is to determine the in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Ananas Cosmosus fruit peel by HRBC membrane stabilization. Hypotonicity induced human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method was performed to check the anti-inflammatory activity of Ananas Cosmosus. The extract was compared with a standard synthetic drug Diclofenac to check the anti-inflammatory activity. Haemolysis and protective activity of both the drugs were checked and analyzed. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity but was less compared to the standard drug. Inflammation has to be treated prior to the disease treatment since decreasing pain is first step in a treatment procedure. This is where the anti-inflammatory drugs act and eventually decrease the inflammation. Diclofenac being a synthetic drug can lead to a lot of side effects. Ananas Cosmosus being a natural drug has fewer side effects comparatively and can be used in combination with other drugs in future in giving and efficient anti-inflammatory drug.

  8. Development and validation of HPLC-UV method for the estimation of Bortezomib in human plasmaDownload Article

    Bhetanabotla Chandramowli, Bigala B Rajkamal
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (501-506)
    • No of Download = 77

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    A Simple, rapid, selective and sensitive HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Bortezomib from human plasma. The drug was extracted with ethyl acetate. Bortezomib was measured in plasma using a validated a HPLC method with UV detector at 270nm chromatographic peaks were separated on 5µm intensil, C18 column (4.6x250mmx5µm) using a mixture of water-acetonitrile-formic acid (71: 28: 1, v/v/v ) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min, pH 6 was adjusted with triethyllamime. The chromatograms showed good resolution and no interference from plasma. The retention time of Bortezomib and internal standard were approximately 5.9±0.05 min and 10.19± 0.03 min respectively. The mean recovery from human plasma was found to be above 88%. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.3 to 20 µg/ml with coefficient of correlation (r2) 0.998. Both intraday and interday accuracy and precision data showed good reproducibility. This method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetics studies.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of extended release trilayered matrix tablets of rasagiline mesylate by geomatrixDownload Article

    B. Prabhakar Reddy, D.V. R. N. Bhikshapathi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (507-518)
    • No of Download = 70

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    The main objective of the present study was to prepare controlled release (CR) matrix trilayer tablet of rasagiline mesylate to achieve zero-order drug release for controlled plasma concentration. Twenty seven formulations (F1-F27) for middle layer were prepared by direct compression method using 33 response surface method (3 variables and 3 levels of polymers) by using design of experiment software with polymers like different HPMC grades. The barrier layers was formulated employing hydrophobic swellable polymer Polyox WSR 303, xanthan gum and EC. The procedure adopted to make the compacts was via direct compressions. The tablets were also evaluated for physicochemical characteristics and release kinetics and it was satisfactory. The developed drug delivery systems showed prolonged drug release rates over a period of 24 h. The release profile of the optimized formulation (HF17) was described by the zero-order and Higuchi model. These results also demonstrated the suitability of rasagiline mesylate three-layered tablet formulation of to provide controlled release for prolonged period of time and improved linearity for rasagiline mesylate in comparison to marketed product in the management of Parkinson’s disease.

  10. Formulation and evaluation of liposomal drug delivery system of decitabineDownload Article

    T. Veena, Dr. Manichandrika, Madavi, Madhuri, Mounika, Bindu Rani, Ashwini
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (519-525)
    • No of Download = 102

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    The drug release from Liposomes depends on many factors including the composition of Liposomes, the type of drug encapsulated and nature of the cell. Once it is released a drug that normally crosses the membrane of a cell will enter the cell, other drugs will not enter. Decitabine is a short biological half-life. This study aimed at formulating and evaluating liposomal formulation of Decitabine in order to enhance its bioavailability. In evaluation study the effect of the varying composition of lipids on the properties such as encapsulation efficiency, particle size and drug release were studied. Phase transition study was carried out to confirm the complete interaction of Decitabine with bilayer structure of liposome. Moreover, the release of the drug was also modified and extended over a period of 8 h in all formulations. F1 emerged as the most satisfactory formulation in so far as its properties were concerned. Further, release of the drug from the most satisfactory formulation (F1) was evaluated through dialysis membrane to get the idea of drug release. The mechanism of dug release was governed by Peppas model.

  11. Formulation and evaluation of chrono modulated pulsatile drug delivery system of doxofyllineDownload Article

    G. Sree Lakshmi, Narendra, Gowthamy Priya, Naveen, Lakshmi, Sravan Kumar, Naveen
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (526-531)
    • No of Download = 49

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    Chronotherapy defined as the treatment in which the drug release in the body is allowed to suite with the circadian rhythm of the disease, such that the involved action of the drug is shown with minimal side effects. Doxofylline core tablets prepared by direct compression method. These core tablets followed by preparation of pulsatile doxofylline tablets using press-coated technology. Doxofylline core tablets were prepared by using various excipients such as Sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrant and MCC as diluents. The core tablets were then compressed into pulsatile tablets using combinations of HPMC K 100M and Eudragit L 100 in various concentrations. These Core tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, drug content, disintegration and drug release studies. These core tablets evaluated based on the dissolution studies. The optimized formulation shows lower disintegration time and faster drug release. Then the pulsatile tablets were evaluated for various tests and drug release studies were conducted for pH 6.8 buffer and optimized formulation which showed satisfactory greater lag time of about 6 hours with satisfactory drug release which contains a combination of HPMC K15M , Eudragit L 100. Pulsatile tablets were formulated utilizing press coated technology and the combination of polymers provided required lag time with satisfactory dissolution profile.

  12. A comparative study on the effect of Ranolazine and Ivabradine on high sensitivity C-reactive protein in cardiac patientsDownload Article

    Prof. Dr. Mathew George, Prof. Dr. Lincy Joseph, Mrs. Leena P N, Betty Mary Mathew, Dany Sebastian, Sony Mariam Saji
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (532-537)
    • No of Download = 58

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    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a substance produced by the liver in response to inflammation. High CRP levels can indicate that there is inflammation in the arteries of the heart, which can mean a higher risk for heart attack. Ranolazine and Ivabradine are used in the treatment of cardiac problems such as angina, heart failure and in patients with acute coronary syndrome. These drugs have found to have action on C-reactive protein, which is a pentameric protein found in blood plasma whose levels rise in response to inflammation. Increased CRP levels indicate risk for atherosclerotic diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of Ranolazine and Ivabradine on high sensitivity C - reactive protein in cardiac patients. Method: This was a prospective studyconducted in the Department of Cardiology, Pushpagiri Medical College Hospital, Thiruvalla. All patients willing to participate were explained about the brief study procedure. 60 patients were taken for the study. The patients were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Residual blood was collected at the time of admission and after 2 weeks. The hsCRP levels was analyzed by using semi auto-analyzer. The results obtained from the study can be compared with the normal range of hsCRP levels. The effectiveness of Ivabradine and Ranolazine on hs-CRP levels reported that both the drugs decreased the hs-CRP levels. Ivabradine decreased hs-CRP levels more efficiently than Ranolazine.

  13. Effects of Jaloukavacharana in Inflammatory Eye DisordersDownload Article

    Dr.Santosh Kumar Shaw, Dr.Prakruthi G, Dr.Sujathamma K
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (538-543)
    • No of Download = 46

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    The frequently encountered inflammatory conditions of eye are conjunctivitis, stye and blepharitis which causes discomfort, foreign body sensation, discharge, photophobia, pain, blurred vision and loss of vision in severe cases. On simulating these conditions to the diseases explained in Ayurveda Conjunctivitis is correlated with abhishyanda, stye with anjananamika and blepharitis with krimigranthi. According to Acharya Sushruta, abhishyanda is prime cause for sarvanetrarogas. In modern science antibiotics, analgesics, anti-inflammatory and steroids are line of treatment in all the inflammatory eye diseases, where long term administration is needed. Apart from these drugs having adverse effects, they are expensive and as soon as the influence of these drugs are withdrawn, the infective organisms resume their growth and multiply with the recurrence of signs and symptoms, thus forcing the rationale of treatment to keep the drugs continuously in contact with the infected tissue. Netra, being Pittta & Raktapradhanaindriya and inflammation processes manifesting in these tissues can be mainly attributed to vitiation Pitta and Rakta. Jalaukavacharana has been explained in our science under Raktamokshana, where it has a vivid importance in treating netraroga by combating both Pitta and Rakta. This paper attempts to explain the importance of jaloukavacharana in treating inflammatory eye diseases.

  14. Determination and validation of acetazolamide tablets 250mg by UV double beam spectrophotometryDownload Article

    Dr.KK.Senthilkumar, S.vigneswaran, K.vidhyapriya, V.venkatesh, S.veeramanikandan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (544-549)
    • No of Download = 44

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    Analytical monitoring of a pharmaceutical product or of specific ingredients within the product is necessary to ensure its safety efficacy throughout all phases of its shelf life. Such monitoring is in accordance with the specifications elaborated during product development. Analytical validation is the corner stone of process validation without a proven measurement system it is impossible to confirm whether the manufacturing process has done what it purports to do. All new methods developed are validated. Determination of Acetazolamide in a fixed dosage form was carried out by UV Spectrophotometric method. The absorbance values were observed for different dilutions of drug at 263.00 nm and which are used for the dilution in Ethanol. This method obeys Beer’s Lambert’s Law in the concentration range of 1-5µg/ml. The results have been validated statistically and the recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of this proposed method.

  15. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of paracetamol and chlorzoxazone in bulk formDownload Article

    Hajera N. Khan, Mahajan Swarali, Chopde Asha, Mohammad Zameeruddin, Vishvanath B. Bharkad
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (550-554)
    • No of Download = 47

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    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the analysis of Paracetamol and Chlorzoxazone. Chromatographic separation achieved isocretically on C-18 column Zorbax Eclipse XDB- C18 (4.6~250mm~5µ). Utilizing a mobile phase Acetonitrile: Water in the ratio 50:50v/v. with a flow rate of 1.5ml/min. UV detection was carried out at 274nm. The retention time of Paracetamol and Chlorzoxazone <10 min respectively. The developed method was validated in terms of recovery, precision,,rggedness, robustness, linearity as per ICH guidelines. This study aimed at developing and validating an HPLC method.

  16. HPLC and LCMS – A review and a recent updateDownload Article

    A.Venkata Suresh Babu
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (555-567)
    • No of Download = 49

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    Chromatography is defined as a set of techniques which is used for the separation of constituents in a mixture. This technique involves 2 phases stationary and mobile phases. The separation of constituents is based on the difference between partition coefficients of the two phases. The chromatography term is derived from the greek words namely chroma (colour) and graphein (to write). The chromatography is very popular technique and it is mostly used analytically. There are different types of chromatographic techniques namely Paper Chromatography, Gas Chromatography, Liquid Chromatography, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Ion exchange Chromatography and lastly High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). This review mainly focuses on the HPLC technique its principle, types, instrumentation and applications. Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS) is fast developing and it’s the preferred tool of liquid chromatographers. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a technique that uses liquid chromatography (or HPLC) with the mass spectrometry. It is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography (or HPLC) with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry. (LC-MS/MS) is commonly used in laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of drug substances, drug products and biological samples. It has been persistently used in drug development at many different stages including Metabolic Stability Screening, Metabolite Identification as well as In Vivo Drug Screening, Impurity Identification, Peptide Mapping, Glycoprotein Mapping, Natural Products De replication, Bio-affinity Screening. LC-MS is now successfully applied to routine analysis in many areas, including therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), clinical and forensic toxicology as well as doping control. This advancement in LCMS was originally and still is fueled by the need for more powerful analytical and bio-analytical techniques that can accurately and precisely discriminate target analytes from high complexity mixtures in a sensitive and selective way. With recent advancement in instrumentation, the use of liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful two-dimensional (2D) hyphenated technology.

  17. Shishupriya being netramritaDownload Article

    Shobha C. M, Dr. Hamsaveni
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (568-588)
    • No of Download = 56

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    Milk has an essential micronutrient whose role in visual function has been known for thousands of years. The balance between free radical production and antioxidant defenses in the body helps in controling diseases. Here the study is all about knowing different Ksheera mentioned in the classics for the management of netra rogas as well as swasthya. Stanya is said to be Shishupriya (liked by kids) and surprisingly it also Netramrita (Nector to eyes). Stanya is referred as chakshu shulagna and is used in many preparations mentioned for the treatment of eye disorders. The present study is based on the literary research done on classics to evaluate the importance of stanya, Go Ksheera and Aja Ksheera in Netra Rogas. The study also focused on finding a logical reasoning for the action of stanya in various ocular disorders.

  18. Consideration of kala in panchakarmaDownload Article

    Dr. Shruthi .S, Dr. Swati. S. Despande Dr. Vinay Kumar.K.N
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (589-596)
    • No of Download = 34

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    Ayurvedic system of medicine aims at maintenance of health in a healthy individual and alleviation of diseases in a diseased person. Thus Ayurveda helps in attaining the Purusharthas. That is why, Ayurveda being science of life, gives emphasis on the concept of Kala. Ayurveda has given great importance to the kala for the swastha as well as the atura. Though, Kala has relationship with all the effects, to prove it practically in the clinical aspect, the problem was undertaken. In accordance, Acharya Charaka says that Aushadha given at appropriate Kala is more efficacious than one given at inappropriate Kala. The importance of kala has been highlighted in Ayurveda on which dosha, agni, bala, ahara, vyadhi, oushadha and chikitsa. Thus even in panchakarma procedure kala plays an important role.

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