IJPAR | International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

ISSN: 2320_2831

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  1. Arma and pterygiumDownload Article

    Dr.Prakruthi G, Dr.Hamsaveni V
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (01-09)
    • No of Download = 195

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    Disorders of the Conjunctiva are a common source of eye complaints, because the surface of the eye is exposed to various external influences. With age, the Conjunctiva can stretch and loosen from the underlying Sclera, leading to the formation of many disorders. Degenerative conditions are one such example. Degeneration refers to the process by which tissue deteriorates and loses its functional ability due to traumatic injury, aging and wear and tear. Pterygium, the commonest conjunctival degeneration is having the similarities with the disease Arma in our classics even with regards to both medical and surgical management. The prevalence rate of Pterygium vary widely from 2% to 29%, higher in tropics than temperate altitudes. Pterygium, usually affects aged persons, with more incidence in men. It may be unilateral or bilateral usually affecting the nasal than the temporal side. Arma is one among the sandhigata rogas as explained in our classics, is a chedana sadhya vyadhi. The methods adopted by our acharyas in performing the shastra karma are identical with the steps followed by the modern ophthalmologist even till date.

  2. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets of montelukast sodiumDownload Article

    Soumik Ghosh, Pawan Kumar, Satyabrata Bhanja, Nansri Saha, Sarita Tiwari
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (10-15)
    • No of Download = 100

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    The objective of this study was to develop effective mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Montelukast sodium prepared by direct compression method using bioadhesive polymers like Xanthan gum, Tamarind gum and synthetic polymers like HPMC K15M,HPMC K100M and sodium CMC as a muco adhesive polymer. Buccal tablets were evaluated by different methods for parameters such as thickness, hardness, weight uniformity, content uniformity, swelling index, in vitro bioadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, stability studies in human saliva, in vivo mucoadhesive performance studies. Bioadhesion strength was increased with increase in the concentration of the polymer, higher bioadhesion strength was found in HPMC K100M. The tablets were evaluated for in vitro release in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for 12 hr in standard dissolution apparatus. When compared with natural and synthetic polymers sustained drug release was found with synthetic polymer HPMC K100M(60mg) along with sodium CMC as a mucoadhesive polymer.The stability studies indicated that there was no significant change in drug release after 3months.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of fexofenadine oral disintegration tablets for improvising patient complianceDownload Article

    Srikanth Choudary Pallothu, Nellutla Sandeepthi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (16-28)
    • No of Download = 80

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    One important drawback of solid dosage forms is the difficulty in swallowing or chewing in some patients particularly pediatric and geriatric patients. Hence, the main aim of this study is to formulate Oral Disintegrating Tablets of Fexofenadine to achieve rapid dissolution, absorption and further improving the bioavailability of the drug. Dissolution test was carried out using USP rotating paddle method (apparatus 2). The stirring rate was 50 rpm. 6.8 pH phosphate buffer was used as dissolution medium (900ml) and was maintained at 37 ± 10C. Samples of 5ml were withdrawn at pre – determined intervals (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 min), filtered and replaced with 5ml of fresh dissolution medium. The collected samples were suitably dilutedwith dissolution fluid, where ever necessary and were analyzed for the Fexofenadine at 412 nm by using UV spectrophotometer. Oral disintegrating Tablets and Films of Fexofenadine were designed with a view to enhance the patient compliance and provide a quick onset of action. Hence it is very conducive to prepare the oral disintegration tablets of fexofinidine.

  4. Formulation and evaluation of lacosamide fast dissolving tabletsDownload Article

    Srikanth Choudary Pallothu1, Nellutla Sandeepthi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (29-39)
    • No of Download = 111

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    In spite of the fact that, the Oral administration of drug is the most popular route about 50-60% of total dosage forms are administered due to ease of ingestion, pain avoidance, versatility (to accommodate various types of drug candidates), and most importantly patient compliance. Solid oral delivery systems do not require sterile conditions and are therefore less expensive to manufacture. However the main aim of this study is to formulate Oral Disintegrating Tablets of Lacosamide to achieve rapid dissolution, absorption and further improving the bioavailability of the drug. Oral disintegrating Tablets and Films of Lacosamide were designed with a view to enhance the patient compliance and provide a quick onset of action

  5. Sythesis and biological evolution of trizole derivativesDownload Article

    P. Lavanya, Dr. R.S. Chandan, Dr. B.M. Gurupadayya
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (40-50)
    • No of Download = 90

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    1,2,4-Triazole derivatives have consistently attracted scientific and practical interest because of their widely varying chemical properties, synthetic versatility, and pharmacological activities, such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti tubercular, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anticonvulsant, antiviral, insecticidal, and antidepressant antiviral properties. Moreover, the 1,2,4-triazole compounds carrying sulfone moiety or imine bond have been reported as antibacterial and antifungal, antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, or anti tumoral agents. The synthsised triazole compounds 5-(4-nitrostyryl)-5-(benzylideneamino)-1, 2, 4-triazolidine-3-one, 5-(hydroxy styryl)-5-(benzylideneamino)-1, 2, 4-triazolidine-3-one were biologically evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, antihelmintic activity. The synthsised triazole compounds shows good anti bacterial, anti fungal activity, against standard drugs like chloramphenicol, tetracycline, fluconazole. In the present study, as a part of our ongoing research, we designed and synthesized new hybrid molecules containing different pharmacophores in a single structure.

  6. Development and characterization of alginate microspheres containing tolcapone by ionotropic gelation methodDownload Article

    Suggala Ajay, G. Ganesh, Gande Suresh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (51-63)
    • No of Download = 91

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    The present study was designed to formulate and evaluate the Tolcapone sodium alginate microspheres. Fourteen formulations batches of microspheres (S1-S14) were prepared by using ionotropic gelation method. Sodium alginate, calcium chloride and gelatin were selected in the formulations. The effect of polymer and cross-linking agent on particle size, shape, % yield, entrapment efficiency, and drug release were studied. From the evaluation parameters S13 was found to be optimized and the drug release was highest of 97.55% with in 12 h in controlled manner when compared with other parameters. From release order kinetics the drug release from microspheres was followed zero order with anomalous Non fickian diffusion. The prepared microspheres were further preceded for compatibility studies and morphological studies, found to be compatible with the polymers. Thus, Tolcapone microspheres could be the best choice in the effective management of Parkinsonism with better patient compliance for prolonged period of time.

  7. Formulation development and evaluation of pirenzepine floating microspheresDownload Article

    P. Kanteepan, D.V.R.N.Bhikshapathi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (64-74)
    • No of Download = 58

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    The current study investigates the development and evaluation of floating microspheres using Pirenzepine as a model drug to prolong gastric retention time. Floating microspheres were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using sodium alginate as polymer, Calcium chloride as cross linking agent, sodium bicarbonate as gas generating agent and HPMCK4M, HPMCK15M as rate retarding agent in concept to optimize the formulation. The FTIR studies indicated no significant interaction observed between drug and excipients. The F7 formulation showed the excellent flow properties. The particle size, % yield, % entrapment efficiency and swelling index of optimized formulation was investigated 55.45±0.09µm, 96.10%, 96.30% and 95.12%, respectively. The %buoyancy was excellent with approximately 98.10% of the microspheres floating upto 24h. The Cumulative % drug released from F7 microspheres was found to be 96.23±0.11% with in 12h and compared with the marketed product 95.23±0.21% with in 1h. The optimized formulation best fitted into zero order and Higuchi kinetics indicating diffusion controlled drug release pattern. SEM studies showed spherical shape and revealed the presence of pores on the floating microspheres surface which was responsible for floating ability. Optimized microspheres (F7) was stable at 40°C ± 2°C/75% RH ± 5% RH for 6 months. The F7 formulation showed the better results with HPMC K4M compared with HPMC K15M as rate retarding polymer. These results indicated that the Pirenzepine-loaded microspheres could potentially be exploited as a delivery system with controlled drug release and improved insitu bioavailability.

  8. A study on aflatoxin content in dates available in domestic market in IndiaDownload Article

    Dr Ashish Mukherjee, Dr Manvi Sharma, Smt Savita Latkar, Smt Priya Maurya
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (75-80)
    • No of Download = 53

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    Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from lands around Iraq. Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. The Ancient Egyptians used the fruits to make date wine, and ate them at harvest. Dates make a sweet, nutritional snack and can be eaten as they come, or glazed with syrup. The date fruit consists of 70 % carbohydrates (mostly sugars), making it one of the most nourishing natural foods available to man. In most varieties, the sugar content of a date fruit is almost entirely of the inverted form (namely glucose and fructose), important for persons who cannot tolerate sucrose. The invert sugar in dates is immediately absorbed by the human body without being subjected to the digestion that ordinary sugar undergoes. Dates are of two types Unpitted and pitted. Pitted dates are fruits that had their stones removed. Pitted dates are without the pit are loaded with natural sweetness and can be used for noshing or baking. Unpitted dates is containing the pits or stones. Pitted dates are firm, easy to chop up and can be used in variety of recipes. The dates are directly consumed without any processing. The aflatoxins are a group of chemically similar toxic fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) produced by certain moulds of the genus Aspergillus growing on a number of raw food commodities. Aflatoxins are highly toxic compounds and can cause both acute and chronic toxicity in humans and many other animals. The aflatoxins consist of about 20 similar compounds belonging to a group called the difuranocoumarins, but only four are naturally found in foods. These are aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. Aflatoxin B1 is the most commonly found in food and also the most toxic and classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as 1st class carcinogen. The Dates, which is directly being consumed by human being, to be free from Aflatoxin contamination or contain the permissible limit of same. In the present study Aflatoxin B1 contamination have been carried out in two varieties of dates(pitted and unpitted) collected from different parts of India and also to assess whether the fruits were safe for human consumption. The aflaoxin in dates have been analysed using HPTLC. 50 Samples of unpitted dates analyzed for the estimation of Aflatoxin. 49 samples are having Aflatoxin content below detection level. Only one sample contains 4.771 ppb of Aflatoxin. In FSSAI Max limit for Aflatoxin is 30 ppb. 51 Samples of pitted dates analyzed for the estimation of Aflatoxin. All the 51 samples are having Aflatoxin content below detection level.

  9. Fabrication and Optimization of Various Superdisintegrants to Formulate Zolpidem Tartarate Fast Dissolving TabletsDownload Article

    Srikanth Choudary Pallothu, Nellutla Sandeepthi, N.Sriram
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (81-95)
    • No of Download = 54

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    In the general perspective, oral administration is the most popular route about 50-60% of total dosage forms are administered due to ease of ingestion, pain avoidance, versatility (to accommodate various types of drug candidates), and most importantly patient compliance. Difficulty in swallowing is also a common problem of all groups, especially the elderly and pediatrics, because of physiological changes associated with these groups. Taste of a pharmaceutical product is an important parameter governing compliance. Hence this research angled to extend towards the selection and optimization of superdisintegrants to formulate Zolpidem Tartarate fast dissolving tablets by direct compression method. The formulations F13, F14, 15 and F16 which contained increasing concentrations of combination of cross povidone with cross Croscarmellose sodium have recorded drug release 94.5%, 96.52%, 99.87% and 96.38% respectively, at the end of 25 to 30 min. From the result it has been revealed that, the disintegration and dissolution of the formulation F15 contained cross povidone (5%) with cross Croscarmellose sodium (5%) was the best formulation among the all other formulations. Consequently, the formulation of the selected drug has been successfully developed as fast dissolving tablets which might significantly improve the patient compliance.

  10. RP-UPLC method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of montelukast and ebastine in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage formDownload Article

    Amaresha S, Rakesh K Jhat
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (96-105)
    • No of Download = 45

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    A simple, accurate, precise and reliable RP-UPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of the Montelukast and Ebastine in pharmaceutical dosage form. Mobile phase with 0.1% Ortho phosphoric acid: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40 run through Waters C18 150 x 3 mm, 2.column at a rate of 0.3ml/min. at temperature 30°C and optimized wavelength was set at 244nm. Retention time of Montelukast and Ebastine were found to be 1.298 min and 1.636 min. The method developed was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines with respect to the stability indicating capacity of the method including system suitability, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. This method passed all the validation parameters; hence, it can be employed for routine quality control of Montelukast and Ebastine in pharmaceutical industries and drug testing laboratories

  11. Formulation and evaluation of gastro retentive floating tablets of atorvastatin calciumDownload Article

    Nansri Saha, Pawan Kumar, Satyabrata Bhanja, Soumik Ghosh, Sarita Tiwari
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (106-111)
    • No of Download = 54

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    Atorvastatin calcium is a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor used in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia. Oral bioavailability of atorvastatin calcium is less than 12%. It also undergoes high first pass metabolism. It is absorbed more in the upper part of the GIT.10 So oral absorption of atorvastatin can be increased by increasing gastric retention time of the drug. Thus it is decided to prolong the gastric residence time in terms of making floating gastro retentive drug delivery system to increase drug absorption and hence bioavailability. In this study Atorvastatin calcium floating tablets were prepared by using two different techniques like Effervescent floating tablets and Non Effervescent floating tablets using Ethyl cellulose, Karaya gum and HPMC K4 M as polymers and gas generating agents like sodium bicarbonate and citric acid and polypropylene foam powder as a selling agent in non effervescent floating tablets. The tablets prepared by direct compression technique were evaluated in terms of their pre-compression parameters and post compression characteristics such as physical characteristics, total buoyancy, buoyancy lag time, swelling index and in vitro release. The best formulation showed no significant change in physical appearance, drug content, total buoyancy time, buoyancy lag time or in vitro release after storage at 40˚C /75% RH for three months. The in vitro release studies confirmed that the formulation (F24) containing 90 mg of karaya gum showed sustained drug release (98.81±0.32%) for 12 h and remained buoyant for more than 12 h by using Effervescent floating technique.

  12. Clinical approach of Aavarana Vata W.S.R to Gastro intestinal tractDownload Article

    Dr.P.Sushma, Dr.M.Srivani
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (112-115)
    • No of Download = 54

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    Avarana is a very interesting mechanism of pathogenesis explained in ayurvedic treatises. It is also one of the least understood concepts among the basic mechanisms of ayurvedic fundamentals. It is as unique as well .Now a days, most of diseases come under samsargaja and aavarana janya according to modern era diet and regimen. We use the term aavarana to vata mostly as other doshas are pangu and there movement depend on movement of vata. Different clinical conditions present like aavarana , depending on the stage of disease. Treatment of aavarana is easy,if provided diagnosis is impeccable. This paper aims at narrating the various aspects of aavarna w.s.r. to git & to discuss them on light of clinical manifestation.

  13. Simultaneous estimation of Rabeprazole and Mosapride by RP-HPLC method in tablet dosage formDownload Article

    Srikanth Choudary Pallothu, Jogu Chandrudu, Sriram. N
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (116-128)
    • No of Download = 40

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    A simple, selective, accurate high Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the analysis of Rabeprazole and Mosapride in Tablet dosage form. Chromatographic separation achieved isocratically on Inertsil C18, ODS column using mobile phase Acetonitrile 100%, with flow rate of 1.0ml/min with UV detection at 276nm. The retention time of Rabeprazole and Mosapride are 2.951 and 4.195 respectively. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation. This study aimed at developing and validating an HPLC method, being simple, accurate and selective, and the proposed method can be used for the estimation of these drugs in combined dosage forms.

  14. RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of simvastatin and ezetimibe in tablet dosage formsDownload Article

    Srikanth Choudary Pallothu, Jogu Chandrudu, Sriram. N
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (129-141)
    • No of Download = 44

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    A rapid, precise, specific, accurate and robust simple RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of Simvastatin and Ezetimibe has been developed and validated. The Stationary phase (column) is Inertsil-ODS C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 µ) and Mobile Phase is Methanol: Acetonitrile (80:20), with flow rate of 1.0ml/min using UV detection at 240 nm. The retention time if simvastatin and ezetimibe is 3.125 and 3.380 respectively. The Method shows linearity in the range of simvastatin and ezetimibe with correlation coefficient of 0.9999 for both. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for simvastatin and ezetimibe were found to be 0.22 and 0.25 respectively. The % recovery for simvastatin and ezetimibe were found within the range of 99.83 and 99.55 respectively. The developed RP-HPLC method was innovation, suitable for detecting both simvastatin and ezetimibe in tablet dosage form.

  15. Simultaneous estimation of rabeprazole and diclofenac sodium in tablet dosage form by RP-HPLC methodDownload Article

    Jogu Chandrudu, Srikanth Choudary Pallothu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (142-146)
    • No of Download = 41

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    A novel, simple, selective, rapid, precise and accurate reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of diclofenac sodium and rabeprazole sodium from pharmaceutical formulations. The method was developed using a Inertsil - C18, ODS column column with a mobile phase el carried out at 210 nm. The developed method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantization. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of these drugs in combined dosage forms.

  16. A study on heavy metal content in black tea available in domestic market in IndiaDownload Article

    Dr Ashish Mukherjee, Dr Manvi Sharma, Smt Savita Latkar, Smt Priya Maurya
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (147-151)
    • No of Download = 46

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    Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Thus, the chemical components in tea have received great interest because they are related to health. Tea is used in folk medicine for headache, digestion, diuresis, enhancement of immune defense, as an energizer and to prolong life. The intake of food and beverages contaminated by heavy metals is harmful to human health and several countries have imposed laws to restrict the presence of heavy metals concentration in food and beverages. In this study, the concentration of two heavy metals including Lead(Pb) and Copper (Cu) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry on samples collected from different parts of India. The results showed that the only 12 samples out of 82 samples analysed were found to contain Lead in very low level ranges from Not detected to 0.144 ppm. The permissible level for Lead (Pb) as per FSSAI in tea is 10 ppm (max). Cu content was present in 19 samples out of 82 samples analysed with value range from Not detected to 0.114 ppm. The permissible level of Copper (Cu) in tea as per FSSAI is 150 ppm (max). All the samples were within the permissible limits. Therefore, it may not produce any health risk for human consumption, if other sources of toxic metals contaminated food are not taken. Keywords: Black tea; Heavy metal; Atomic absorption spectrometry

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