IJPAR | International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

ISSN: 2320_2831

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  1. In vivo evaluation of lamivudine extended release trilayer matrix tabletsDownload Article

    Rangu Nirmala, Gande Suresh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (233-245)
    • No of Download = 67

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    The objective of the present study was aimed to develop and optimize extended release (ER) matrix tablets of Lamivudine trilayer tablets by direct compression and consist of middle active layer and barrier layers were prepared with different concentrations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers. The tablets were also evaluated for physicochemical characteristics and release kinetics. The physicochemical characteristics of the prepared tablets were satisfactory. The developed drug delivery systems showed prolonged drug release rates over a period of 24 h. The release profile of the optimized formulation (HF23) was described by the Zero-order and Higuchi model. From in vivo bioavailability studies, AUC0- inf for optimized formulation was higher than the marketed formulation. Statistically, AUC0-t of the optimized formulation was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to marketed formulation. The present study demonstrated that formulation of Lamivudine trilayer matrix tablet is a highly effective strategy for enhancing the prolonged drug release and bioavailability.

  2. A new UV-spectrophotometric method for the determination of Ornidazole in bulk and in formulations using sodium citrate as hydrotropic solubilizing agentDownload Article

    Dr.K.Rajeswar Dutt, Rabha Hani, G.Yeshwanth, V.Bharani, Md.Rayees Ahmed, G. Koteswar Rao, I.Santhosh, Dr. K.N.V. Rao
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (246-253)
    • No of Download = 39

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    A thorough literature survey of the various analytical methods for the quantitative estimation of Ornidazole in both bulk drug and dosage forms has revealed that very few analytical methods are available utilizing the hydrotropic solubilisation technique to date. The present research paper is a description n of a new analytical method developed using the principle of Hydrotropy employing very easily available chemical namely 0.75M Sodium citrate solution. The method has been validated as per ICH guidelines and found to conform to ICH guidelines. In the present investigation the use of organic solvent has been avoided due to their high cost, volatility and toxicity, making the method environmental friendly. The findings revealed that the method is new, simple, safe, environmental friendly, accurate, precise, reproducible and cost-effective. It can be successfully employed as a routine analytical procedure for the analysis of Ornidazole tablets. Hence the authors suggest that this analytical method can be adopted in the Pharmaceutical industry for the analysis of Ornidazole in bulk and various dosage forms. Ornidazole shows its maximum absorbance at 303 nm and Beer’s law was obeyed in concentration range of 1-5µg/ml in presence of 0.75M Sodium citrate and Molar absorptivity. The statistical analytical parameters namely Correlation coefficient were computed and found to be, 0.950

  3. Development and in vivo evaluation of solid dispersions containing nifedipineDownload Article

    G. Muralichand, D.V. R. N. Bhikshapathi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (254-266)
    • No of Download = 45

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    The main aim of this investigation was to develop and in vivo evaluation solid dispersions of Nifedipine which has low aqueous solubility and bioavailability. Preliminary solubility studies were carried out using various hydrophilic polymers. Formulation with 1:4:2 ratios of Nifedipine, Labrosol and SLS was found to be the best as it possessed better drug release properties compared to pure drug and other physical mixtures. The optimized formulation SD12 was found to have better drug release of 98.74±5.19% in 90 minutes. From FTIR studies no interaction was takes place between drug and polymers. XRD peaks indicate the successful transformation of drug from crystalline to amorphous form. From in vivo bioavailability studies, Cmax of the optimized formulation SD12 was 4.14±0.06ng /ml, was significantly higher as compared to pure drug suspension, i.e., 2.88±0.32ng/ml. Tmax of optimized formulation was decreased significantly when compared with pure drug (1.00±0.04hr, 2.00±0.05hr), AUC0-inf and AUC0-t for optimized solid dispersion formulation was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to pure drug suspension. The present study demonstrated that formulation of Nifedipine solid dispersion by solvent evaporation technique is a highly effective strategy for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water soluble Nifedipine.

  4. Quantitative LC-MS/MS method development and validation for the estimation of neratinib: application to bioavailability study in healthy rabbitsDownload Article

    Lakshmi Kanth M, Raj Kamal B
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (267-277)
    • No of Download = 41

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    A sensitive, simple and liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC- MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the fast quantification of Neratinib (NRTB) in human plasma. The developed method was successfully applied to bioavailability study in healthy rabbits. The analyte and Crizotinib (CZNB) internal standard (IS) were separated from 200 mL of plasma sample by opting the protein precipitation as an extraction method with methanol. Chromatographic resolution was resolved with phenominex C18(50mm×4.6 mm, 4 mm) analytical nonpolar column and a mobile phase mixture of 10mM ammonium acetate, acetonitrile and methanol in the ratio of 20:30:50. Mobile phase flow from the column was fixed at 0.8 ml/min. The overall analysis time is promising compared to other reported procedures for Neratinib. From in vivo studies NRTB was shown Tmax of 6.05±0.027 and mean Cmax, AUC0t and AUC0 for test formulation is 295.83±39.066, 856.70 ± 153.16 and 1652.447 ± 205.06 respectively. The developed and validated research method was successfully applied in bioavailability studies in healthy rabbits.

  5. Analytical method development and validation for the estimation of ursodiol in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation by RP-HPLCDownload Article

    Lakshmi kanth M, Raj Kamal B
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (278-284)
    • No of Download = 61

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    The present work is aimed at developing and validating an accurate, precise and rapid high-pressure liquid chromatography method (HPLC) for the estimation of ursodiol in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. The separation was achieved using RP C-18 XTerra Column (25 cm x 4.6 mmx5 µm) and mobile phase comprising of methanol: acetonitrile: phosphoric acid (60:20:20 v/v). The flow rate maintained at 0.8 ml/min with a minimal run time of 7 minutes. The retention time of ursodiol was found to be 3.085 minutes. This method is linear over the range of 2-24 μg/ml with a recovery of 99.54%.The regression equation is 54219.86x + 7662.85 with regression coefficient of 0.999. Validation parameters such as specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were evaluated for the method according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Q2 R1 guidelines. The method fulfilled the requirements for reliability and feasibility for application to the quantitative analysis of ursodiol in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  6. In-vitro diffusion studies and anticancer activity of cytarabine loaded nanocochleates against MCF-7 cell linesDownload Article

    Niranjana Vaidhya Anantharaman, Ubaidulla Udhumansha, Grace Rathnam
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (285-294)
    • No of Download = 54

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    Cochleates are a relatively new type of crystalline particles having a large and continuous lipid bilayer sheets rolled up in a spiral structure of less internal aqueous phases. Cytarabine is used in the treatment of the leukemia. It can bind with the cross-linking agent like calcium chloride to form the coiled structure. The In-vitro diffusion studies was performed by altering the various concentrations of cross-linking agent, drug, cholesterol: the formulation has its effect by change in the release pattern and the entrapment efficiency. In this study the concentration of the crosslinking agent is related to the release pattern. The Nanocochleates is used to increase bioavailability, to achieve the maximum therapeutic efficacy, to reduce side effects and adverse effects. Nanocochleates was prepared by ionic crosslinking method. The in-vitro release was studied at different pH conditions 7.4 and acidic pH 5.3. The formulation shows maximum entrapment efficiency of 86.22 ± 3.41% and good stability. Prolonged drug release was observed in pH 5.3 when compared to pH 7.4. Particle size was found in the range of 0.94 to 1.8 µm and the zeta potential was -7.3 ±3.3mV. Moreover, the stability studies of the prepared formulation show excellent stability. The in-vitro MTT assay was performed using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. CYT- NCs were more cytotoxic than CY solution at 24hrs. These results suggest that CY-NCs can be explored for treatment of leukemia owing to their ability of providing sustained drug release, stability and improved cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cell line.

  7. Preparation and quality control profiling of triphala churnaDownload Article

    Shruti Shah, Sonali Patil
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (295-300)
    • No of Download = 53

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    Ayurvedic Formulation is prepared from the raw materials derived from Plant origin, mineral origin, metal, animal or a marine origin. Most of the traditional system of medicine is effective but they required standardization. Standardization of traditional medicine is essential in order to assess their quality, purity, safety & efficacy. It is majorly used in the treatment of eye disorders, oral ulcers, liver disorders, edema and inflammation.In the present study preparation of Triphala Churna was carried out and then it was subjected to various quality control parameters. The formulation was prepared as per the guidelines mentioned in pharmacopeia & various tests performed were physical properties (such as moisture content) , biochemical test, ash value, HPLC, IR spectroscopy. The above parameters can be used as preliminary standardization for quality control of Triphala Churna

  8. Formulation and evaluation of dabigatran fast dissolving tablets by using polyplasdone xl-10 and primelloseDownload Article

    Ausaf Butool, Bibi Fareesa Banu, Tuba khan, Rufaida Farheen, Dr. Y Rajesh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (301-316)
    • No of Download = 91

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    Dabigatran is an oral anticoagulant drug requiring rapid onset of action to exert desired pharmacological effect. It is a lipophilic (BCS Class-II) with little/no aqueous solubility, its absorption is dissolution rate limited. Increase in solubility of the drug is required to get rapid action. It has the half life of 14 hours and bioavailability in the body is 65% due to first pass metabolism. The purpose of this investigation is to develop fast dissolvimg tablet of Dabigatran to improve oral bioavailability for its immediate action for the treatment of stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation, the fast dissolving tablet was formulated by wet granulation technique using hydrophilic carrier like PEG-400 as solubilizer and POLYPLASDONE XL-10 and PRIMELLOSE used as super-disintegrant. The pre and post compression parameters were evaluated. From the dissolution profile it was concluded the tablet prepared by wet granulation technique, the formulationF6 containing 4% of PEG 4000 and 7.5% PRIMELLOSE showed 85.46% drug release due to its increase in porosity and wettability. From the DSC and FTIR study it was concluded that there was no possible drug and polymer interactions.

  9. Medsitol sachets: a natural boon for infertilityDownload Article

    Govind Shukla, D. Sruthi Rao, C.J. Sampath Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (317-327)
    • No of Download = 22

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    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder characterized by hormonal imbalance, irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth, and obesity. Women with PCOS typically have numerous cysts on the ovaries. PCOS is the most common hormonal disorder among women of reproductive age, affecting an estimated 5–10 percent of Indian population. In PCOS, the body produces an excess amount of androgens, and the ratio of luteinizing hormone to follicle-stimulating hormone is abnormally high. Ovulation occurs less frequently, or the ovaries don’t release eggs at all. In the absence of ovulation, the menstrual cycle is irregular or absent, and cysts containing the immature eggs form on the ovaries. This causes the ovaries to enlarge. Research suggests that PCOS may result from excess insulin, which boosts male hormone production (androgens), leading to menstrual cycle disturbances, acne, and coarse hair growth. Genetic factors may also be at play since this occurs more commonly in those with a family history. Early diagnosis and treatment of PCOS is important to improving quality of life and reducing the risk of long-term complications, such as diabetes and heart disease. Research Studies concluded that medsitol Sachets may regulate menstrual cycles and improve ovulation, medsitol sachets appears to be effective in improving hormonal disturbances of PCOS. The present paper Reviews the Role of medsitol sachets developed by R&D cell of Lactonova Nutripharm Pvt Ltd. Hyderabad in hormonal disturbances of PCOS, to regulate menstrual cycles and to improve ovulation,

  10. In-Vitro antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz.)Download Article

    M. Prabhu, G.Alagumanivasagam
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (328-332)
    • No of Download = 25

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    In vitroantioxidantactivities of ethanol extract of whole plant of Ziziphus xylopyrus(Retz.) was investigated. The free radical scavenging activity to evaluate by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl -1- picrylhydrazyl) method, superoxide anion scavenging and iron chelating activity. DPPH radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract and reference standard Rutin IC50 values was found to be 820 g/ml and 460 g/ml, nitric oxide scavenging activity of ethanolic extract and reference standard ascorbic acid IC50 values was found to be 510g/ml and 420g/ml and iron chelating activity of ethanolic extract and reference standard EDTA IC50 values was found to be 320 g/ml and 63g/ml respectively. The above result of possess good an antioxidant activity when compare to the above all standard.

  11. Isolation of active components derived from tuberous root of Ipomoea digitata.Download Article

    G.Alagumanivasagam
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (333-338)
    • No of Download = 22

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    The objective of the present investigation was to isolate the active components present in whole plant of Ipomoea digitata. . The plant were extracted with various solvents (pet. ether, ethyl acetate and methanol), methanol was found to be more active among them. The preliminary phytochemical results revealed that flavonoids and amino acids as active constituents in methanolic extract of Ipomoea digitata.Themethanolic extract of Ipomoea digitata. was undergone column chromatography with different solvent fractions. Hence, two compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of Ipomoea digitata. with the compound 1 designated as compound 1 (110 mg)the solvent system(hexane :ethyl acetate80:20), and fractions 42-50 (eluted with ethyl acetate: Methanol 75:25) gave a solid designated as compound 2 (135mg) compound 2 Rf value was 0.19 using to solvent system (ethyl acetate: Methanol 90:10). The structures of the two isolated compounds were characterized by using FT-IR, NMR and Mass spectrophotometric methods. Thus, the compound 1 was characterized as 3, 4, 5 – Trihydroxy – 6 – (c methoxy carbonyl methyl) – tetrahydro – 2H – Pyran – 2 Carboxylic acid and its molecular formula is C8H14 O8., and compound 2 was characterized as Tetrahydro 4, 5-dimethoxy-6 (Methoxy methyl)-3 (tetrahydro – 3 – 4, 5, - trimethoxy – 6 – methyl – 2H – Pyran 2 – 2 – y loxy) – Pyran-2 Carboxylic acid and its molecular formula C19 H34 O11. Therefore, further biological investigations need to be carried out isolated compounds present in this plant.

  12. Cyber crime and related laws in IndiaDownload Article

    Dr. Jyoti Pralhad Kasture
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (339-342)
    • No of Download = 24

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    The internet in India is growing rapidly. It has given rise to new opportunities in every field, it is universally proved that every concept has advantages and disadvantages and one of the most disadvantage is cyber crime. Cyber crime is any illegal activity which is committed using internet. It violates privacy or damage to computer system such as files, website or software. In current scenario of increasing crimes, cyber crime has also geared up its ratio. India has largest internet users with comparatively less cyber crime awareness. The article attempts to describe every angle related to cyber crime and its laws.

  13. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of oral films containing benazeprilDownload Article

    P. Vamsee Kumar, Y. Shravan Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (343-354)
    • No of Download = 24

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    Mouth dissolving film (MDF) is a better alternate to oral disintegrating tablets due to its novelty, ease of use, and the consequent patient compliance. The present investigation highlights the formulation and evaluation of mouth dissolving films of Benazepril. It was prepared by solvent casting method using HPMC and maltodextrin as film forming polymer. The prepared films were subjected for in vitro evaluation tests like thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, morphological properties, moisture content, %Drug content and content uniformity, tensile strength, percent elongation, In vitro disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies and stability studies. The in vitro disintegration time and dissolution time of the optimized formulation (F15) was found to be 9 seconds and 99.45 % within 7 min respectively. FTIR studies showed no drug polymer interaction takes place. From in vivo bioavailability studies, Cmax of the optimized formulation F15 was 105±0.4ng /ml, was significantly higher as compared to pure drug suspension, i.e., 82±0.1ng/ml. Tmax of optimized formulation was decreased significantly when compared with pure drug (1.00±0.2hr, 2.00±0.3hr), AUC0-∞ and AUC0-t for optimized solid dispersion formulation was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to marketed product. These results revealed that fast dissolving films of Benazepril could be formulated for quick onset of action which is required in the efficient management of hypertension.

  14. In vivo evaluation of glyburide extended release trilayer matrix tablets by geomatrixDownload Article

    B. Ram Prasad, G. Ganesh Kumar, D.V.R.N. Bhikshapathi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (355-367)
    • No of Download = 21

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    The aim of the present investigation is to design and evaluate the controlled release Glyburide trilayer matrix tablets, to achieve zero-order drug release for sustained plasma concentration. Matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression whereas three-layer tablets were prepared by compressing polymer barrier layers on both sides of the core containing the drug. Formulations were prepared by using different grades of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose and Ethyl cellulose. Based on the evaluation parameters, drug dissolution profile and release drug kinetics HF16 was found to be optimized formulation. In vivo bioavailability studies were carried out on the optimized formulation (HF16), mean time to attain peak drug concentration (Tmax) was 6.01±0.04 and 4.00±0.01h for the optimized and marketed product respectively, while mean maximum drug concentration (Cmax) was 7.21±0.03 ng/ml and 5.00±0.01 ng/ml respectively. AUC0-α and AUC0-t for optimized formulation was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to marketed product. A fair correlation between the dissolution profile and bioavailability for the optimized formulation was observed. The results indicate that the approach used could lead to a successful development of a controlled release formulation of the drug. The HF16 was shown significant plasma concentration with controlled release and maintained for 24 hrs with patient compliance by reducing the dosage frequency, when compared with marketed product in the efficient management of Diabetes mellitus.

  15. Development and pharmacokinetic evaluation of nebilolol solid dispersion using novel polymersDownload Article

    A. Laxmi Raj, Y. Shravan Kumar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (368-380)
    • No of Download = 21

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    In the present investigation, fifteen Nebivolol solid dispersion formulations were prepared with 1:1:1, 1:5:2 and 1:3:1.5 ratios of drug: carrier: surfactant by solvent evaporation method. There was significant improvement in the rate of drug release from all 15 solid dispersions and the formulation (SD14) comprising Nebivolol: Kleptose HPB: SLS in 1:5:2 ratio has shown enhanced solubility about 42 folds and significant improvement in the rate of drug release i.e. From powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies it was evident that polymorphic form of Nebivolol has been converted into an amorphous form from crystalline within the solid dispersion formulation. From in vivo bioavailability studies, Cmax of the optimized formulation SD14 was 2.44±0.06ng /ml, was significantly higher as compared to pure drug suspension, i.e., 1.58±0.02ng/ml. Tmax of optimized formulation was decreased significantly when compared with pure drug (1.00±0.04hr, 2.00±0.03hr), AUC0-α and AUC0-t for optimized solid dispersion formulation was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to pure drug suspension. The present study demonstrated that formulation of Nebivolol solid dispersion by solvent evaporation technique is a highly effective strategy for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water soluble Nebivolol.

  16. Design and in vivo evaluation of selegiline mouth dissolving filmsDownload Article

    P. Srinivasa Rao, T. Rama Mohan Reddy
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (381-392)
    • No of Download = 21

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    The main objective of the present investigation was aimed at formulation and evaluation of Selegiline fast dissolving oral thin films to enhance the patient convenience and compliance in the effective treatment of Parkinson's disease. Oral thin films of Selegiline were prepared by solvent casting method with using different film forming agents like HPMC5LV, HPMC 15LV, HPMC50LV and HPMC K4M. Propylene glycol, Sucrose, Vanillin is used as a plasticizer, sweetening agent, flavouring agent respectively and citric acid as saliva stimulating agent. FDOFs were evaluated for physical characteristics, Surface pH, weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, percent drug content, percentage elongation, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies. Based on all the evaluation studies F18 is selected as optimized formulation and in vitro disintegration time and amount of drug release from the film was 9secs and 99.68% within 7min respectively. A further in vivo study proved that the fast dissolving films of Selegiline produced a faster onset of action and improved bioavailability as compared to the conventional tablets.

  17. Review on shobhana varti - anajana netra kriya kalpaDownload Article

    Dr.Gurav Gajanand, Dr. S M Pasha
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (393-395)
    • No of Download = 23

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    It is said that, loss of eye sight will immerse a person into the world of darkness so one should try to protect his vision. To achieve this many netra kriya kalpa are explained in ayurvedic classics. Anjana is one of the Netra kriya kalpa applying medicinal paste or powder to the inner side of the lid. Shobhana Varti Anjana is Lekhanajana explained in Gadanigraha and it is Indicated in Arma,Netra srava,Patala,Timir and Arbuda.

  18. Review on MadhukadiTaila-a SnehaKalpanaDownload Article

    Dr. SolapurkarVivek V, Dr.S. M. Pasha, Dr. SujaK Sreedhar
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (396-398)
    • No of Download = 24

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    Taila paka is a unique preparation told in Ayurvedic classics. This method of preparation helps in scavenging those active principles present in raw drugs which are lipid soluble. Taila is considered under maha sneha which mainly controls vata, similarly other doshas depending on medicines which are used for taila paka. Madhukadi taila is mentioned in Timira pratishedha adhyaya of Ashtanga Hrudaya by Acharya Vagbhata. This taila mitigates Vataja and Sannipataja timira. This taila if used for nasya will gives better results.

  19. A review article on importance of nidan panchak in ayurvedaDownload Article

    Dr. Ankita Thakur, Dr. Akhilesh Kumar Srivastva, Dr. Rajesh Manglesh
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (399-402)
    • No of Download = 22

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    There are many ways of diagnosis in Ayurveda but one of them is Nidan panchak . Nidan panchak is the one of the most important method to diagnose disease, its causes and prognosis. Nidan panchak is consist of five sub types which are Nidan (causes), Purvroop (symptoms), Roop(signs), Upshaya (examination methods) and Samprati (pathogensis). The diagnosis of disease in Ayurveda is done by Prakriti of the patient. Prakriti of the patient depends on the Dosha (Vata, Pitta, Kapha) Diagnosis of disease depends on Tridoshas which are Vata, Pitta, Kapha. By the imbalance of these Tridoshas disease occurs in the body. These imbalances in the body Doshas is due to lifestyle, diet and eating habits of the people. Diagnosis is the important component for the treatment of disease. In Ayurveda there are many techniques other than Nidan panchak which are used for the diagnosis of the disease they are Naadi pareeksha, Dashvidh pareeksha, Asthvidh pareeksha but in this article importance of Nidan panchak is explained.

  20. A comparative study on vibhitakaadi ghrita tarpana and putapaka in the management of vataja timira with special reference to astigmatismDownload Article

    Dr. Shwetha R, Dr S M Pasha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (403-409)
    • No of Download = 19

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    Background Astigmatism is a refractive error where in the refraction varies in different meridians, resulting in blurriness & distorted of vision. The increase in the incidence of astigmatism along with other refractive errors is due to the present life style, where in there is excessive use of computers, television and junk food1. Avyakta darshana, vyavidha darshana is the symptom mentioned in vataja timira2, which is seen in astigmatism, where in the patient experiences blurrness and distorted of vision. Our acharyas have mentioned number of kriyakalpas, yogas and chakshushya regime for curing Timira. Tarpana is one such kriya kalpa, which is non-invasive and cost effective, Vibhitakaadi ghrita is described as a potent yoga, which cures many netra rogas including timira. So in present study an attempt is made to evaluate the effect of Vibhitakaadi ghrita tarpana and putapaka in vataja timira. The assessment of the result was done based on the subjective and objective parameters. Results It is statistically proved that overall effect of Vibhitakaadi ghrita tarpana and Putapaka (group B) showed better results in comparison to tarpana with Vibhitakaadi ghrita (group A).

  21. Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of stavudine extended release tabletsDownload Article

    Sarad Pawar Naik Bukke, Dr. Rajesh Asija, Dr. M. Purushothaman
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (410-420)
    • No of Download = 17

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    During the past two decades, there has been a steady increase in both the number of antiretroviral medications and the number of possible regimens available to manage human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). But still, regimen fails due to some reasons such as toxicity, adverse effects, and consequent difficulties with patient adherence. Stavudine is the Food and Drug Administration approved drug for clinical use for the treatment of HIV infection, AIDS, and AIDS related conditions, either alone or in combination with other antiviral agents. The side effects of Stavudine are dose dependent and a reduction of the total administered dose reduces the severity of the toxicity. To reduce the frequency of administration and to improve patient compliance, a once daily sustained release formulation of Stavudine is desirable. Hence, in the present work, an attempt has been made to develop once daily sustained release matrix tablets of Stavudine using putative hydrophilic matrix materials such as hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K15M, Sodium CMC and PEO. The prepared extended release tablets were then evaluated for various physical tests like diameter, thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, and drug content uniformity. The results of all these tests were found to be satisfactory. Formulation and evaluation properties given best result by the extended release tablets of Stavudine.

  22. Formulation and invitro evaluation of floating matrix tablets of mitiglinideDownload Article

    Yenumula Nettekallu, Dr Rajesh Asija, Dr M.Purushothaman
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (421-427)
    • No of Download = 19

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    The floating matrix tablet of MITIGLINIDE (MTG) was prepared using the combination of release controlling polymer HPMC K15M and sodium alginate. The final optimization was done by applying 32 full factorial designs, taking floating lag time (Flag), time to release 50% of drug (t50) and time to release 90% of drug (t90) as dependent factors. All the formulations were evaluated and results showed that M-3 formulation containing maximum amount of both variables gave promising results, hence was considered as optimized batch.A Gastroretentive multiparticulate system of MTG was developed as floating microsponges by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method. The primary screening of formulation related and process related variables was done by trial and error technique. The final optimization of dosage form was done by applying 32 full factorial design by taking concentrations of PVA (X1) and EUDRGIT S 100(X2) as independent factors and product yield (Y1), % entrapment efficiency (Y2), % buoyancy (Y3)

  23. Formulation and evaluation of paliperidone HCL oral disintegrating tabletsDownload Article

    Mohit Kumar, Vandana Arora (Guide)
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (428-432)
    • No of Download = 24

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    Paliperidone HCL is atypical antipsychotic agent which blocks D2, 5HT2, α2, α1 and H1 receptor. It is derivative of Resperidone having better efficacy in treatment of Schizophrenia. When compared with other atypical antipsychotics (eg. Chlorpromazine), it having broad spectrum activity and reduces both positive and negative symptoms of Schizophrenia. It undergoes an extensive hepatic first pass metabolism leads to low oral bioavailability (28%). ODT can overcome this problem through improving its bioavailability with an immediate drug release.In the present work, Oral disintegrating tablets of Paliperidone HCL were prepared by direct compression method using superdisintegrants such as Crosspovidone lycoat, and Tulsion. Paliperidone HCL has very long half hife and less bioavailability, so for enhancing the bioavailability of the drug it was formulated as a oral disintegrating tablet. The dispersion time of tablets were reduced with increase in the concentration of superdisintegrants like Crosspovidone, lycoat, and Tulsion . From the results obtained, it was concluded that Tulsion was found to be the best among the superdisintegrants, the highest drug release of F9 is 99.45% of the drug in 30 min.

  24. Impact of three square factorial design in formulation and characterization of mianserintransferosomesDownload Article

    V.Viswanath, C.Rajaram, S. Rahath Fathima
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (433-445)
    • No of Download = 23

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    Objective The current investigation deals with formulate and characterize the Mianserintransferosomes using 32 factorial design. Method Mianserin is a BCS class II drug and is widely preferred for the antidepressant action. The transferosomes are developed using thin film hydration method by varying the concentrations of lecithin: span 80 and Mianserin. A total of 9 formulations were developed by considering the ration of lecithin: span 80 and Mianserin as independent variables and assigned as X1 and X2 respectively and entrapment efficacy, drug content, and vesicle size as the dependent variables. Further, the results were subjected to response surface methodology using sigma plot® software and the statistical equations were drawn out. Results The generated results clarifies that the current formulations meet the pharmacopoeial standards and justifies F5 as the optimized formulation. When subjected to kinetic modeling F5 exhibited first order release kinetics with non-Fickian diffusion. Further the development of polynomial equations for dependent variables through step-wise backward non-linear regression analysis revealed the interaction between the selected variables and their effect on interchanging them. Conclusion The F5 is considered as optimized formulationand follows first order, and Higuchi kinetics, and the mechanism of drug release is found to be non-Fickian diffusion anomalous transport.

  25. Formulation and evaluation of gastroretentive floating tablets of rebamipideDownload Article

    Ramdas T. Dolas, Dr. Shalindra Sharma, Madhuraj Sharma
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (446-455)
    • No of Download = 18

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    The present study outlines a systematic approach for design and evaluate of Rebamipide floating tablets to enhance the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of the drug. It was prepared based on wet granulation technique for sustained delivery of active agent. Quick GI transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to decreased efficacy of the administered dose and thus less patient compliance. Gastroretentive floating tablets, which was designed to provide the desired sustained and complete release of drug for prolonged period of time. Gastroretentive floating tablets of Rebamipide were prepared by wet granulation technique using different concentrations of Gellan Gum, Fenugreek Gum and Karaya Gum. The optimized formulation (RF22) exhibited 99.17% drug release in 12 hrs, while the buoyancy lag time was 38 sec. In-vitro drug release kinetics was found to follow both the Zero order and the possible mechanism of Rebamipide release from the optimized formulation might be attributed to super case II transport mechanism. The Optimized formulation (RF22) showed no significant change in physical appearance, drug content, floating lag time, in vitro dissolution studies after 75% ± 5 % RH at 40s ± 20C relative humidity for 6 months.

  26. Ayurvedic approach in the management of paksavadha W.S.R. Paraplegia - a case studyDownload Article

    Dr.Kulvinder Sandhu, Dr. Vinod kumar
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (456-460)
    • No of Download = 17

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    Purpose Spinal cord injury (SCI) have been one among the most devastating trauma man can suffer. The worst victims of SCI are those suffering with paraplegia associated with autonomic dysfunction. Disruption of communication of nerve impulses anywhere along the pathway from the brain to the muscles can impair control of muscle movement and cause muscle weakness and loss of coordination. The prevalence of acute traumatic is estimated to be per million in India with 10,000 new cases per year. Main aetiology behind them are Motor vehicle accident (44.5%), Falls (18.1%) and Violence (16.6%). The elements that worsen the vitiation of Vata dosha are essentially: Abhighatha (External Injury), Chayapachayajanya vyadhis (metabolic disorders). So it is need of hour to search or establish a specific systematic, intensive, coordinated team approach for its management. Ayurveda offers us good treatment protocol on the basis of principles related with pathophysiology of the disease and gives ray of hope to such patients. As this type trauma which leads to paraplegia can be correlated with Paksahvadha which is included in Sarvanghagata and Vatavyadhi avruta vata, Pangu roga in Ayurveda. Method A 2 year and 2 month, male patient presenting with was no lumber pain but he was complaining of weakness and heaviness in both lower limbs, inability to stand with or without support was bought to R.G.G.P.G.A. Hospital Paprola. In this article, attempt has been made to review the Ayurvedic classics text and related literatures to understand the disease with emphasis on its samprapti on the basis of Kriyakala and we can assume vitiation of vata dosha. Vata shaman including snehanan, swedana (Shastik shali pinda sweda , Nadi sweda) and vata shodhana (vastikarma) as well as use of Medhya drugs are best applicable in the management of paraplegia. Result Management done by using principles can effectively manage critical conditions such as Paraplegia by improving patients quality of life. Although the treatment was not able to bring a complete independence of functions in the case it certainly had reduced the level of dependence as was observable with the improved MBI score & SCIM-III score. Conclusion As the treatment was able to make improvements in existing conditions, this approach should be taken into consideration while making any further trial to treat similar or new conditions with the help of Ayurveda .

  27. Ancient methods of poisoningDownload Article

    Dr.SonaliBaliram Gaikwad M.D.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (461-464)
    • No of Download = 16

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    Visha (Poison) is a substance which after entering the body disturbs natural and Physiological functions of the body (i.e. Dosha, Dhatu and Mala) and it also degrades the health of the human being and which result in destructions of life. The substance immediately after entering into the body causes the vitiation of the healthydhatus or killing of the healthy person is defined as visa. Whatever substance, after entering into the body, creates panic in the normal functions of the basic tissues, destroys the wellbeing and threatens the life is called as poisons. Derivatives of Visha is explained differently by different Acharyas depending upon their aim and areas of interest. Acharyas have defined different methods of poisoning under the heading of Vishadana Adhishthana. Achryas have also mention detail treatment for it. In modern time these methods of poisoning are relevant and influences human life.

  28. Pharmcognostic, phytochemical and antibacterial studies on jasminum auriculatumDownload Article

    Sucharitha P A M, Madhu bindu M, U Salma S, R Mymuna S, Padmavathi P, Mansoor A K S.P, V Ramana P
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (465-473)
    • No of Download = 16

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    Jasmine is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family Oleaceae with about 200 species throughout the world, out of which around 40 species are reported to be growing in India. Irrespective of the species, extracts from different parts such as leaves, stem, bark and roots of the Jasminum plants have been used in ethno-medicines for a long time. The aim of the present study is to screen the plant material for phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity. An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi or protozoans as well as destroying viruses. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes (microbicidal) or prevent the growth of microbes (microbiststic). Jasminum auriculatum is an evergreen shrub; native to Deccan Peninsula, Circars and Carnatic extending south wards to Travancore. The present study on pharmacognostical characteristic of Jasminum auriculatum provide useful information for its correct identity and help to differentiate from the closely related other species. Strains of bacteria Streptomyces aureus and Escherichia coli have been used for the study. The ethanolic extracts were used to find antibacterial activity by disc plate method and are showing very good reaction for carbohydrates, alkaloids, volatile oils, flavanoids, tannins, saponins, fats and oils and amino acids. This may be the reason for the very good antibacterial activity.

  29. Refinement of solubility of Resperidone formulating as fast dissolving tablets using molecular dispersion techniqueDownload Article

    Panjala.Mounika
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (474-486)
    • No of Download = 14

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    The oral route is most common and preferred route for drug delivery system, it is convenient and easy ingestion. Solid dispersion techniques have been used to enhance the dissolution and oral bioavailability of many poorly soluble drugs .Hence the researchers focused on two areas i) To enhance solubility and dissolution ii) To increase the permeability of poorly water soluble drugs. Solid dispersion is containing at least two different components. Solid dispersion drug dissolves immediately to saturate the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) fluid, and excess drug precipitates as fine colloidal particles or oily globules of submicron to nano size Preparation of the soli dispersion can be done by the hot melt extrusion process and wet extrusion process. Various types of the materials are used in the preparation process they are carries, Emulsifiers, Cellulose Derivatives, Plasticizers and some other equipment’s are used to determine the Risperidone’s solubility and dissolution profile is expected to significantly improve its bioavailability and reduce its side effects.

  30. Management of dyslipidemia: a case studyDownload Article

    Dr Pragya Choubey, Dr Ankita Thakur, Dr. Sakshi Sharma, Proff. Ashwani Upadhyaya
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (487-489)
    • No of Download = 15

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    Dyslipidemia is one of the major pathological conditions. Most people will have no symptoms but having hyperlipidemia increase risk of developing fatty liver, cardiovascular disease and many other diseases. Sanitary life style and bad food habit plays important role to form unsaturated fat and at last raised lipid profile. We can refer dyslipidemia with Medovaha Srotodushti in Ayurvedic context. Plant sterols are very good sources that inhibit storage of unsaturated fat in our body. Curry leaf (Murraya koneigii) is a very common plant which is used in every house hold. Antilipidemic activity of this plant has already proved in various researches. The main objective of this study is management of dyslipidemia with curry leaf in a single case study.

  31. Synthesis, characterization and screening of anti convulsant activity of novel tetra substituted imidazole derivativesDownload Article

    Lincy Joseph, Mathew George, Akshay Murali
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (490-493)
    • No of Download = 12

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    In this study a new tetra substituted imidazole derivatives has been synthesized from the condensation of Benzil, substituted aldehyde, substituted aromatic amine and ammonium acetate in presence of glacial acetic acid at 120-140 ºC. The newly synthesized derivatives has been characterized by various physicochemical techniques such as melting point, TLC, FTIR 1HNMR, and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds are screened for their anti convulsant activity by PTZ induced convulsion and MES method. The standards used for the method are diazepam and phenytoin respectively.

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