IJPAR | International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

International Journal of Pharmacy and Analytical Research

ISSN: 2320_2831

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  1. Estimation cefixime and ornidazole simultaneous in tablet dosage form by RP-HPLC methodDownload Article

    Srikanth Choudary Pallothu, Ragoba Gnyaneshwar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (494- 504)
    • No of Download = 68

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    A simple, Accurate, precise method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of the Cefixime and Ornidazole in Tablet dosage form. Mobile phase containing Buffer and Degassed Methanol and Buffer in the ratio of 60:40 V/V, has been pumped through column at a flow rate of 1ml/min. Buffer used in this method was of di-sodium hydrogen phosphate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Temperature was maintained at 30°C. Optimized wavelength for Cefixime and Ornidazole was 254 nm. Retention time of Cefixime and Ornidazole were found to be 2.1 min and 4.9 min. %RSD of the Cefixime and Ornidazole were and found to be 0.21 and 0.26 respectively. The percentage recovery was obtained as 99.81% and 99.76% for Cefixime and Ornidazole respectively. LOD, LOQ values are obtained from regression equations.

  2. Incidence of infected open fracture wounds in level i trauma center in Saudi ArabiaDownload Article

    Wazzan Al-Juhani, Sameera Aljohani, Mohammed Benmeakel
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (505-509)
    • No of Download = 64

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    Objectives The aim of the study is to report the incidence of positive cultures among open fractures presented to King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) level I trauma center. Methods This is a prospective cross sectional study, we are reporting the incidence of positive deep swabs by taking two swab cultures from inside open fracture wounds in emergency department and operation room, then sending the swabs to our microbiology lab for cultures. Results We were able to study 36 open fractures presented to (KAMC) in a 6-month period, complete swabs were taken from 19 wounds. Negative cultures were found in 18 open fracture wounds, only one wound had a positive culture for Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We were able to follow the patients for short period; none of the 18 wounds got infected. The incidence rate of contaminated wounds was 5%. The internal fixation frequency was 17 cases out of 19. One case ended up with amputation, and we treated one case conservatively with cast after irrigation and debridement. Conclusion Open fracture wounds have high risk of infection. Among our subjects, the risk was reduced by following the standard protocols in managing open fractures promptly.

  3. Brain targeting drug delivery systemDownload Article

    V. Viswanath, C. Rajaram, S. R. Fathima, C. Rupa
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (510-520)
    • No of Download = 46

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    The prevalence rate for CNS pathology has demonstrated by approximately 1.5 billion people undergoing from disorders of CNS. Delivery of drugs to the CNS is the presence of blood brain barrier that has tendency to impair the drug distribution and it denotes the major impediment for the development of CNS drugs .In order to distribute the drugs into the CNS via passing the blood brain barrier, new emerging approaches have been developed for magnetic drugs targeting, chemical delivery system, and drug carrier system. The solid colloidal particles with a size range between 1-1000nm. In present it describes various nanotechnology based formulations such as polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, micelles and nanoemulsions which widely used for better delivery of drugs across blood brain barrier. The net amount of delivered drug and its capability to gain access the main considering points for CNS drug development. Gradually the drug release reduced peripheral toxicity and potentiate to target at specific site and crossing the blood brain barrier are the major benefits to contributing the nanoparticles. The blood brain barrier is major challenge to deliver the drugs to CNS which limits the access of drugs to the brain substance. Strategies for drug delivery to brain involve by passing the blood brain barrier.

  4. Evaluation of khadiradikavalagraham in promoting oral hygiene among secondary and higher secondary school childrenDownload Article

    Dr. Ankush Jagota, Dr. Ankita Thakur, Dr. CharuSupriya, Dr. Jayan D, Dr. T.P. Sarasa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (521-542)
    • No of Download = 32

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    In current era, the oral problems are faced by people irrespective of age and gender due to the change in daily routine and food habits. Children are more prone to Oral problems as they consume food which is unhealthy. Oral problems include a number of period ontological issues leading to ill oral health. This constitutes a complex combination of different problems related to gingival, teeth and tongue hence the precise prevalence rate cannot be determined in particular age groups. Acharyas have explained the importance of Dinacharya in day today life. Here special reference about Kavalagraham has been mentioned. AcharyaVagbhata have indicated Khadiradikavalagraham for oral hygiene which contains drugs that comprises of Katu, Tiktha and KashayaRasas , possess the qualities of DantaShodhana, VranaShodhana and Ropana . Thus enables to overcome the ill oral health and maintains a good oral hygiene. Design Interventional pre-post test without control Method Present clinical trial was aimed to assess the Khadiradikavalagraham in promoting oral hygiene among secondary and higher secondary school children. Total 179 children were assessed on oral hygiene index to select the final 30, who match up with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The duration of thetherapy was 30 days and assessment had done every month up to three months after therapy started. All subjects completed the treatment procedure. The results were statistically analyzed. Findings After 30 days of KhadiradiKavalagraham there was significant levels of reduction in symptoms like Halitosis (p<0.001), Anorexia (p<0.05), Tongue coating (p<0.001), Oral hygiene index (p<0.001), Plaque index (0.001), gingival index (p<0.001) Motivation success rate (MSR) was 53.72, which falls into the category of 50 < MSR < 70; OHMSI = 3 ; OHMSI, which implies that study was moderately successful in promoting the oral hygiene of school children. Conclusion Thepractice of KhadiradiKavalagraham was effective in promoting oral hygiene among selected secondary and higher secondary school children.

  5. Analytical method development and validation of plerixafor in its dosage form in the presence of tetra-aza-cyclotetra decane derivatives by HPLCDownload Article

    Tasneem Fatima, Imam Pasha.S, Murali BalaramVaranasi, Anupama Koneru, M.Mushraff Ali Khan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (543-557)
    • No of Download = 53

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    A simple and selective HPLC method is described for the determination of plerixafor Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax eclipse C18 250x4.6mmx5 micron using mobile phase consisting Water: Methanol: Acetonitrile in the ratio 40:35:25v/v with detection wavelength of 221 nm. Linearity was observed in the range 50-125 µg /ml For Plerixafor (r2 =0.9964) for the amount of drugs estimated by the proposed methods was in good agreement with the label claim. The proposed method is fully validated with parameters like accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, robustness and ruggedness. The proposed method is stability indicating with parameters like acid base peroxide, photolytic and thermal degradation. No interference found from all three impurities of Plerixafor that is tetraazacyclotetradecane derivatives.

  6. A study on the treatment of maternal anemia and its outcome conducted in a tertiary care hospitalDownload Article

    Dr.Bathsa Liza Johnson, Dr.Suresha B.S, Dr.Baburam Thapa, Dr.Chetan B, Dr.Eliza Sharon P J
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (558-564)
    • No of Download = 28

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    Background Anemia is one of the most prevalent nutritional deficiency problems afflicting pregnant women. About 20% of pregnant women suffer anemia, and most of the cases are iron deficiency, folic acid deficiency, or both. WHO has estimated the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women in developed and developing countries, and that is 14% in developed and 51% in developing countries and 65-75 percent in India. Objectives To study the treatment given for maternal anemia and its outcome. Methodology: This was a prospective observational study conducted at the department of obstetrics and gynaecology of MIMS.250 anemic pregnant women were enrolled to the study. A well designed patient data collection form and questionnaire form was used for collecting the details. The information were documented and subjected to suitable statistical tools. Result Among 250 anemic pregnant women included in the study, 177(70.8%) were mildly anemic, 65(26%) were moderately anemic and 8(3.2%) were severely anemic. The study on prescription pattern of drugs for anemia revealed that 93.2% of patients were treated with Ferrous sulphate, 45.2% were treated with vitamin B Complex and 18.8% were given packed red blood cells. During the follow-up, there was a significant improvement in the Hb levels from a mean of 9.245 to 9.985 g%. The number of women having various grades of anemia reduced and the number of women with normal Hb increased during the follow-up and this was statistically significant.(χ2-53.0155, P<0.0001) Conclusion Based on the findings of the study, most of the patients were mildly anemic and majority of them were treated with oral iron therapy. Our study found that the early detection and proper treatment of anemia during pregnancy is very beneficial in improving the Hb levels of pregnant women and thus reducing both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

  7. Formulation research and development of floating matrix tablet of clarithromycin by using various synthetic natural polymersDownload Article

    Jyothi, Srilatha, Dr.A. Yasodha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (565-578)
    • No of Download = 29

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    In the present research work Gastro retentive floating matrix formulation of Clarithromycin. Initially analytical method development was done for the drug molecule. Absorption maxima was determined based on that calibration curve was developed by using different concentration. gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate concentration was optimized. Then the formulation was developed by using different concentration of polymers of various grades of HPMC and guar gum as Polymeric substances. The formulation blend was subjected to various preformulation studies, flow properties and all the formulations were found to be good indicating that the powder blend has good flow properties. Among all the formulations HPMCK100M as polymer were retarded the drug release up to desired time period i.e., 12 hours in the concentration of 90 mg. Whereas in low concentration the polymer was unable to produce the desired action. (F5 formulation 97.36% drug release). The formulations prepared with HPMC K15M less retarded the drug release. Hence they were not considered. The optimized formulation dissolution data was subjected to release kinetics; from the release kinetics data it was evident that the formulation followed korsmeyar peppas order mechanism of drug release.

  8. Method development and validation of candesartan cilexetil in bulk drug by RP-HPLCDownload Article

    Nasema Begum, Parbati Kirtania Roy, Mohd. Amrin Sultana
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (579-585)
    • No of Download = 31

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    Candesartan Cilexetil (Candesartan) is a medication utilized for the treatment of Hypertension. The main objective of the present work is to determine a simple, precise, accurate RP-HPLC method. In RP-HPLC, the method was developed (Waters Alliance 2690 with PDA detector) at 250nm. The mobile phase used was Methanol: Water (75:25) and Inertsil C18 ODS (4.6×150mm, 5µ) column was used for separation with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The method was validated for System suitability, Specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, Robustness. The linearity was observed in a concentration range of 20-70ppm. The %RSD was found to be <2.0% in all cases and all the validation parameters were found to be within the limits. The proposed method was suitable for the quantitative determination of Candesartan Cilexetil in bulk drug.

  9. Retrospective study on antibiotic use in different clinical departments of hospital in Nalut, LibyaDownload Article

    Prakash Katakam, Mabroukah Amr Ishrayhah, Nada Alaazbi, Abdurraouf MM Khalf
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (586-593)
    • No of Download = 27

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    A retrospective Study on Antibiotic Use in Different Clinical Departments of Hospital in Nalut, Libya during a period of five months (1/1/2013to 30/5/2013). Data were collected retrospectively from inpatients medical files (600 patient's medical file), prescriptions for outpatients (400 prescriptions studied) and the total number of prescription was 1000. The data then was evaluated by Microsoft Excel software for analysis and descriptive statistics. The World Health Organization (WHO) indicators (utilization in defined daily doses (DDD); DDD/1000 inh/day) were used and the ATC/ DDD method was implemented. The three most frequently used antibiotics for inpatients were cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and metronidazole with 25.57%, 16.54% and 15.34% of the total prescribed antibiotics respectively, and for outpatients they were amoxiclav (26.23%), amoxicillin and azithromycin (12.41%) and ciprofloxacin (11.48%). After calculating the consumption of antibiotics in DDD, the highest consumed antibiotic in DDDs (g) was clarithromycin 10.67 g and 0.119 g in terms of DDD/1000inh/day, while consumption of amoxiclav was the lowest consumption 0.011 g and 0.00012 DDD/1000 in h/day. About 98% of patients given antibiotics without culture sensitivity tests (c/s). Only 2% of the patients undergone the test during the treatment. In conclusion, this study we identified that the DDD for antibiotic consumption data for five months and the clarithromycin was the most consumption over those months and we find out the most prescribed antibiotics and the most of the wards use it. In addition to the demographic data, this also helps physicians to have a more precise idea about prescriptive patterns prevalent in the Libyan community.

  10. RP-HPLC method development and validation for simultaneous estimation of nebivolol and valsartan in pharmaceutical dosage formsDownload Article

    Dr. K. Rajeswar Dutt, Umesh Ganji, V. Shirisha, Santhosh illendula. Dr. K. N .V. Rao
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (594-601)
    • No of Download = 30

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    A simple, Accurate, precise method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of the Nebivolol and Valsartan in Tablet dosage form. Chromatogram was run through Std Discovery C18 150 x 4.6 mm, 5. Mobile phase containing Buffer 0.1%OPA: Acetonitrile taken in the ratio 55:45 was pumped through column at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Buffer used in this method was 0.1% OPA buffer. Temperature was maintained at 30°C. Optimized wavelength selected was 260.0 nm. Retention time of Nebivolol and Valsartan were found to 2.227 min and 3.126 %RSD of the Nebivolol and Valsartan were and found to be 0.6 and 0.4 respectively. %Recovery was obtained as 99.94% and 100.02% for Nebivolol and Valsartan respectively. LOD, LOQ values obtained from regression equations of Nebivolol and Valsartan were 0.05, 0.16 and 0.18, 0.53 respectively. Regression equation of Nebivolol is y=10542.x+470.4, y = 13049x+16927 of Valsartan. Retention times were decreased and that run time was decreased, so the method developed was simple and economical that can be adopted in regular Quality control test in Industries. Retention times were decreased and run time was decreased, so the method developed was simple and economical that can be adopted in regular Quality control test in Industries.

  11. Method development and validation of rizatriptan in dosage form by RP-HPLCDownload Article

    Mohd. Amrin Sultana, Mrs. Parbati Kirtania Roy, Nasema Begum
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (602-609)
    • No of Download = 29

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    Rizatriptan is a drug used in the treatment of migrane. This attempt was made to develop a simple, accurate & precise method for the routine analysis of Rizatriptan. This method was developed on trial & error basis by changing the variables wherever required. Finally a method was optimized and the conditions were determined by using RP HPLC Method. The optimized method used contains 70 volumes of phosphate buffer Ph7.8 and 30 volumes of acetonitrile at 235 nm and is validated as per ICH guidelines. The method was validated for system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, LOD and LOQ. The system suitability parameters were within limit, hence it was concluded that the system was suitable to perform the assay. The method shows linearity between the concentration ranges of 40-70 µg / ml for Rizatriptan and R2 value was found to be 0.998. As there was no interference due to mobile phase, the method was found to be specific. The method was also found to be robust and rugged. The proposed method developed was suitable for the quantitative determination of Rizatriptan in dosageforms.

  12. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of novel series of benzoxazinone containing piperazine derivativesDownload Article

    Devikasubramaniyan, Rameshpetchi Rajendran, Vankudoth Aruna
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (610-617)
    • No of Download = 28

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    The present work is concerned with the synthesis of some new compounds comprising different benzoxazinones 4-(3-(dimethylamino-propyl)-4H-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-3-one containing secondary amines derivatives.. Their potential therapeutically significance tested against three strains of Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermdisis and Bacillus subtilis) and three strains of Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginsoa and Klebsiella pneumoniae) by agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activity of synthesized derivatives were compared to reference standard antibiotics Penicillin and streptomycin. The present study revealed that 4-(3-(dimethylamino-propyl)-4H-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-3-ones possess good bactericidal activity against a panel of bacteria causing common bacterial diseases and therefore opens the possibility of finding latest clinically useful antibacterial compounds. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established by elemental analysis and spectral data.

  13. Preparation and evaluation of a new gel formulation of acetominopheneDownload Article

    Dr.Hassen A.H.Bennasir
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (618-621)
    • No of Download = 17

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    The occurrence of oral semisolid dosage form in pharmaceutical field is rare. Oral gels are preparations designed to produce a greater patient compliance especially in pediatrics due to its palatability and elegant in appearance. Acetaminophen, a Para aminophenol derivative is a potent analgesic and antipyretic with weak anti-inflammatory activity.The aim of this study is based on the preparation of the gel form of the acetominophene and evaluate the screening effects of the newly formulated gel by using the animal model. Objective The present study is focused to formulate the acetominophene gel and study its properties and evaluate its screening effect on rabbits. The formulated gel was studied for its Drug content and its stability at room temperature for stipulated number of days. Methods The various excipients used for the formulation of the gel was added to proportion and batch sizes of100 ml was prepared .The gel considered for this formulation was carbomer. The carbomer is hydrophilic and produces sparkling clear gel when? neutralised with alkali. Carbomer disperses in water to form acidic colloidal solutions of low viscosity which when neutralised with alkali to produce high viscosity gels. So, carbomer was considered for our formulation. Results The properties of the newly formulated drug had the properties of the gel and the drug content and the stability of the drug showed significant results .The screening studies on the animal model yielded desired results Conclusion The study confirmed the properties of the acetominophene in the newly formulated gel and its effect for its anti pyretic activity is also achieved for the gel formulated drug.

  14. A comparative clinical study of guggulu-apamarga kshar sutra & guggulu-arka kshar sutra in the management of bhagandaraDownload Article

    Masooruddin, Dr. Ajay Kumar Gupta, Dr. Pankaj Kumar Sharma
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (622-628)
    • No of Download = 14

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    Ayurveda, an ancient and unique part of Indian philosophy is really one of the great wonders of science. Ayurveda is not merely a health science, but it also reflects the healthy life style. स्वस्थस्यस्वास्थरक्षणमातुरास्यविकारप्रशमनंच I (च.सू. ३०/२६) is the first and foremost principle of Ayurveda. In the present era, ano-rectal disorders are increasing in number due to adaptation of sedentary life style and other factors. Bhagandara (Fistula in ano) is the second most common and notorious disease among all anorectal disorders. It is recurrent in nature due to lack of its complete cure in modern science, which makes it more and more difficult for treatment. It produces pain and inconvenience in routine life. It is a chronic purulent inflammatory disease, initially manifested by an abscess followed by continuous or intermittent discharge of pus through the track and leads to an unhealed condition. Improper care, lack of hygiene and negligence leads to further aggravation of the disease. Nowadays, management of Bhagandara with Kshar Sutra had proved as big revolution, it has gained popularity due to its minimal invasive approach and complete cure of the disease. It is the need of time to do further researches to get more efficient Kshar Sutra. In the present research work Guggulu-Apamarga Kshar Sutra and Guggulu-Arka Kshar Sutra were prepared for the management of Bhagandara. 40 diagnosed case of Bhagandara in two equal groups of 20 patients each of any age group were selected from OPD and IPD of P.G. Department of Shalya Tantra, Rishikul Campus, Uttarakhand Ayurveda University, Haridwar (U.K.) India. All the patients were selected in two groups and treated with respective Kshar Sutra. The results showed significant relief in subjective and objective parameters. Moreover, this therapy was well accepted by all patients and did not cause any hindrance in their daily routine work during period of management. No complications were observed in this clinical study with follow up period.

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